Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 141–149 | Cite as

Attitude Toward Own Aging: Age Invariance and Construct Validity Across Middle-Aged, Young-Old, and Old-Old Adults



The Attitude Toward Own Aging (ATOA) Scale assesses an individual’s evaluation of their own aging, and has been widely used in the field of subjective aging literature. The present study examined whether the ATOA scale measures the same construct across middle-aged (40–60), young-old (61–74), and old-old adults (ages 75 or older) and also evaluated the construct validity of the ATOA construct in relation to measures of subjective well-being. Data drawn from the 2008 wave of the German Aging Survey (DEAS; n = 6091) were used. ATOA was assessed by the ATOA subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), and subjective well-being was assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the model fit of the one-factor model consisting of four items fits the data well. Multi-group invariance analyses provide evidence for configural and metric invariance of the ATOA scale across the age groups, but not for scalar invariance. Additional analysis assessing construct validity indicated that the ATOA items exhibited convergent validity. The findings support the utility of the 4-item scale when examining age group differences of ATOA across a wide age range and that ATOA is distinct from measures of subjective well-being.


Attitude Toward Own Aging Self-perceptions of aging Subjective aging Measurement invariance Construct validity 



The authors would like to thank the staff of German Centre of Gerontology for providing the dataset.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New York (SUNY) College at Old WestburyOld WestburyUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA

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