The Relationship Between Secondary Traumatic Stress and Personal Posttraumatic Growth: Personality Factors as Moderators
- 658 Downloads
This present study examined the relationship between secondary traumatic stress, personality factors, and personal posttraumatic growth for persons indirectly exposed to traumatic life events. A sample of 162 nurses and physicians completed the self-report measures describing symptoms of secondary traumatic stress, personality factors and vicarious posttraumatic growth. The results indicated that secondary traumatic stress negatively correlated with vicarious posttraumatic growth. Moreover, this relation is moderated by personality factors. A low level of secondary traumatic stress symptoms is associated with a higher level of perceived posttraumatic growth for participants with a high level of openness, agreeability and conscientiousness. These findings emphasize the differences in perceiving posttraumatic growth in the context of secondary exposure to traumatic life events.
KeywordsSecondary traumatic stress Posttraumatic growth Personality Moderation
This paper is supported by the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development (SOP HRD), financed from the European Social Fund and by the Romanian Government under the contract number POSDRU/159/1.5/S/133675.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2010). The posttraumatic growth model: Sociocultural considerations. In T. Weiss & R. Berger (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth and culturally competent practice (pp. 1–14). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO personality inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEOPI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Figley, C. R. (1995). Compassion fatigue as secondary traumatic stress disorder: An overview. In C.R. Figley (Ed.), Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized (pp. 1–20). New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
- Kiran, M., Rana, M. H., & Azhar, M. (2010). Posttraumatic growth amongst survivors of a suicide bombing attack in Northern Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society, 7, 29–33.Google Scholar
- Kissil, K., Nino, A., Jacobs, S., Davey, M., & Tubbs, C. Y. (2010). ‘‘It Has Been a Good Growing Experience for Me’’: Growth experiences among African American youth coping with parental cancer. Families, Systems and Health: The Journal of Collaborative Family HealthCare, 28, 274–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lockenhoff, C. E., Terracciano, A., Patriciu, N. S., Eaton, W. W., & Costa, P. T, Jr. (2009). Self reported extremely adverse life events and longitudinal changes in five-factor model personality traits in an urban sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 53–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Pietrzak, R. H., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., Rivers, A. J., & Southwick, S. M. (2010). Structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and psychosocial functioning în Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Psychiatry Research, 178(2), 323–329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schäfer, W., Kroneman, M., Boerma, W., van den Berg, M., Westert, G., & van Ginneken, E. (2010). The Netherlands: Health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 12(1), 1–228.Google Scholar
- Shakespeare-Finch, J., & Barrington, A. (2012). Behavioural changes add validity tothe construct of posttraumatic growth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(433), 439.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Wehrli, S. (2008). Personality on social network sites: An application of the FiveFactor model. ETH Zurich sociology working paper, 7. <http://repec.ethz.ch/ets/papers/wehrli_studivz_big5.pdf>.