Profiles of Social and Coping Resources in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relations to Parent and Child Outcomes
This study described empirically derived profiles of parents’ personal and social coping resources in a sample of 207 families of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Latent Profile Analysis identified four family profiles based on socieoeconomic risk, coping strategy utilization, family functioning, available social supports, and perceptions of family-centered support. During the time of children’s transition to school, parents in the most disadvantaged group experienced the highest levels of parenting stress and depression, and their children had significantly lower adaptive behaviour scores and more parent-reported behavior problems than children in the other three groups. Results highlight the need for systematic surveillance of family risk factors so that supports can be provided to enhance both parental well-being and children’s developmental health.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Coping Social resources Parents Risk factors Transition
We are grateful to the parents and children who participate in the Pathways in ASD study, and to the current and past members of the study team. We are also grateful to our funders, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, Kids Brain Health, Autism Speaks, the Sinneave Family Foundation, and Alberta Innovates Health Solutions.
AZ-Z conceived of the study and its design, performed the statistical analysis, participated in the design and interpretation of the data, and drafted the manuscript; PM provided oversight for data collection, participated in the design and interpretation of the data, and drafted the manuscript; PS coordinated the study, participated in interpretation of the data, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript; and ED, IS, TV, JV, CW, TB, LZ, ME, and SG provided oversight for data collection, participated in interpretation of the data, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare that all procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index (3rd edn.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resource.Google Scholar
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Arlington, VA: Author.Google Scholar
- Bennett, T., Boyle, M., Georgiades, K., Georgiades, S., Thompson, A., Duku, E., … Szatmari, P. (2012). Influences of reporting effects on the association between maternal depression and child autism spectrum disorder behaviors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 89–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campaign 2000 (2015). Let’s do this: Let’s end child poverty for good, 2015 report card on child and family poverty in Canada. Retrieved from http://campaign2000.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/2015-Campaign2000-Report-Card-Final-English.pdf, June 20, 2017.
- Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S. T. (2013). Latent class and latent transition analysis: With applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Derogatis, L. (1994). Symptom Checklist-90-R: Administration, scoring and procedure manual for the revised version of the SCL-90. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
- Dyke, P., Buttigieg, P., Blackmore, A., & Ghose, A. (2006). Use of the measure of process of care for families (MPOC-56) and service providers (MPOC-SP) to evaluate family-centred services in a paediatric disability setting. Child: Care, Health and Development, 32, 167–176.Google Scholar
- Edwards, S., Berzofsky, M., & Biemer, P. (2017). Effect of missing data on classification error in panel surveys. Journal of Official Statistics, 33, pp. 551–570.Google Scholar
- Hambly, C., & Fombonne, E. (2005). Family background information questionnaire (FBIQ). Montreal, PQ: McGill University.Google Scholar
- Hirst, M., Jervis, N., Visagie, K., Sojo, V., & Cavanagh, S. (2011). Transition to primary school: A review of the literature. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
- Hodgetts, S., McConnell, D., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Nicholas, D. (2014). The impact of autism services on mothers’ occupational balance and participation. OTJR: Occupation Participation and Health, 34, 81–92.Google Scholar
- Kazak, A. E., Rourke, M. T., & Navsaria, N. (2009). Families and other systems in pediatric psychology. In M. C. Roberts & R. G. Steele (Eds.), Handbook of pediatric psychology (pp. 656–671). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., … Rutter, M. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Muhajarine, N., Anderson, L., Lysack, M., Guhn, M., & Smith, F. (2012). Developmental health knowledge as a catalyst for healthy family policies in Canada. Montreal: National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy.Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus (version 5.1). Los Angeles, CA: Authors.Google Scholar
- Osborne, L. A., & Reed, P. (2009). The relationship between parenting stress and behavior problems of children with autistic spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 76(1), 54–73.Google Scholar
- Raina, P., O'Donnell, M., Rosenbaum, P., Brehaut, J., Walter, S. D., Russell, D., … Wood, E. (2005). The health and well-being of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. Pediatrics, 115(6), e626–e636.Google Scholar
- Rosenbaum, P., King, S., Law, M., King, G., & Evans, J. (1998). Family-centred service: A conceptual framework and research review. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 18, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Smith, L. E., Seltzer, M. M., & Greenberg, J. S. (2012). Daily health symptoms of mothers of adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome and mothers of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1836–1846.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Smith, L. E., Seltzer, M. M., Tager-Flusberg, H., Greenberg, J. S., & Carter, A. S. (2008). A comparative analysis of well-being and coping among mothers of toddlers and mothers of adolescents with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(5), 876–889.Google Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales: Second edition (Vineland II), Survey Interview Form/Caregiver Rating Form. Livonia, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
- Starr, E. M., Martini, T. S., & Kuo, B. C. (2016). Transition to kindergarten for children with autism spectrum disorder: A focus group study with ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and early intervention service providers. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 31, 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Statistics Canada (2007). National longitudinal survey of children and youth, cycle 7. Ottawa, ON: Author.Google Scholar
- Szatmari, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., Georgiades, S., Elsabbagh, M., Waddell, C., Bennett, T., … Volden, J. (2016). Resilience and developmental health in autism spectrum disorder. In M. Hodes & S. Gau. (Eds.), Positive mental health, fighting stigma, and promoting resiliency and children and adolescents (pp. 91–109). New York: Academic Press/Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Vermunt, J. K., & Magidson, J. (2013). Technical guide for latent GOLD 5.0: Basic, advanced, and syntax. Belmont, MA: Statistical Innovations Inc.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2007). Wechsler individual achievement test, second edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II-A). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Zaidman-Zait, A., Mirenda, P., Duku, E., Szatmari, P., Georgiades, S., Volden, J. … Pathways in ASD Study Team (2014). Examination of bidirectional relationships between parent stress and two types of problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 1908–1917.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar