Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 1483–1491 | Cite as

Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Kaori Maeyama
  • Kazumi Tomioka
  • Hiroaki Nagase
  • Mieko Yoshioka
  • Yasuko Takagi
  • Takeshi Kato
  • Masami Mizobuchi
  • Shinji Kitayama
  • Satoshi Takada
  • Masashi Nagai
  • Nana Sakakibara
  • Masahiro Nishiyama
  • Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda
  • Ichiro Morioka
  • Kazumoto Iijima
  • Noriyuki Nishimura
Original Paper

Abstract

Association of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with autism spectral disorder (ASD) has been suggested since 1980s. Despite the observed association, its role as a risk factor for ASD remains to be defined. In the present review, we systematically evaluated the available evidence associating congenital CMV infection with ASD using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Any studies on children with CMV infection and ASD were evaluated for eligibility and three observational studies were included in meta-analysis. Although a high prevalence of congenital CMV infection in ASD cases (OR 11.31, 95% CI 3.07–41.66) was indicated, too few events (0–2 events) in all included studies imposed serious limitations. There is urgent need for further studies to clarify this issue.

Keywords

Congenital CMV infection ASD Risk factor Prenatal environment Maternal immune activation Neurodevelopmental disorder 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. Takashi Omori (Clinical and Translational Research Center, Kobe University Hospital) for statistical analysis.

Author Contributions

All authors were involved in the design of the study. KM, KT, HN, and NN performed the literature search, evaluated the relevant records for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis, and conducted the statistical analysis. KM and NN drafted the initial manuscript. MY, YT, TK, MM, SK, ST, MN, NS, MN, MTI, IM, and KI revised the article critically for important points. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaori Maeyama
    • 1
  • Kazumi Tomioka
    • 1
  • Hiroaki Nagase
    • 1
  • Mieko Yoshioka
    • 2
  • Yasuko Takagi
    • 2
  • Takeshi Kato
    • 3
  • Masami Mizobuchi
    • 4
  • Shinji Kitayama
    • 5
  • Satoshi Takada
    • 6
  • Masashi Nagai
    • 1
  • Nana Sakakibara
    • 1
  • Masahiro Nishiyama
    • 1
  • Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda
    • 1
  • Ichiro Morioka
    • 1
  • Kazumoto Iijima
    • 1
  • Noriyuki Nishimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsKobe University Graduate School of MedicineKobeJapan
  2. 2.Kobe City Pediatric and General Rehabilitation Center for the ChallengedKobeJapan
  3. 3.Western Kobe City Pediatric and General Rehabilitation Center for the ChallengedKobeJapan
  4. 4.Department of Developmental PediatricsShizuoka Children’s HospitalShizuokaJapan
  5. 5.Himeji City Center for the DisabledHimejiJapan
  6. 6.Kobe University Graduate School of Health ScienceKobeJapan

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