Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 1530–1536 | Cite as

Refractive Status and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Jiaxing Wang
  • Gang Ding
  • Ying Li
  • Ning Hua
  • Nan Wei
  • Xiaoli Qi
  • Yuxian Ning
  • Ying Zhang
  • Xue Li
  • Jing Li
  • Linlin Song
  • Xuehan Qian
Original Paper

Abstract

Amblyopia risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are usually hard to detect in early childhood due to poor cooperation and has not been reported in the Chinese population. We screened 168 Chinese children with ASD, aged between 3 and 8 years, and 264 age-matched neurotypical children with Spot photoscreener and basic ophthalmologic examinations. Children with ASD were found to have normal refractive status but significantly higher incidence of strabismus (16.1%), compared with control children (1.5%) (p < 0.01). Most of the cases of strabismus found in children with ASD were classified as esodeviation. Strabismus in children with ASD should be considered more seriously as an amblyopia risk factor by ophthalmologists and other healthcare professionals.

Keywords

Autism Children Amblyopia Risk factor Refractive status Strabismus 

Notes

Author Contributions

Study concept and design: JW and XQ. Acquisition of data: GD, NH, NW, XQi, YN, YZ, XL, JL, LS and XQ. Analysis or interpretation of data: All authors. Drafting of the manuscript: JW and YL. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaxing Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gang Ding
    • 3
  • Ying Li
    • 2
  • Ning Hua
    • 3
  • Nan Wei
    • 3
  • Xiaoli Qi
    • 3
  • Yuxian Ning
    • 3
  • Ying Zhang
    • 3
  • Xue Li
    • 3
  • Jing Li
    • 3
  • Linlin Song
    • 3
  • Xuehan Qian
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyTianjin Medical University General HospitalTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Strabismus and Pediatric OphthalmologyTianjin Medical University Eye HospitalTianjinChina

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