Mothers of Children with Autism have Different Rates of Cancer According to the Presence of Intellectual Disability in Their Child
- 463 Downloads
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Increasingly, research attention has focused on whether genetic factors conveying susceptibility for these conditions, also influence the risk of other health conditions, such as cancer. We examined the occurrence of hospital admissions and treatment/services for cancer in mothers of children with ASD with or without ID compared with other mothers. After linking Western Australian administrative health databases, we used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of any hospitalisations and treatment/services for cancer in these groups of mothers. Mothers of children with ASD without ID had greater risk of admissions for cancer (HR 1.29 [95 % CI 1.1, 1.7]), and for treatment/services in particular (HR 1.41 [95 % CI 1.0, 2.0]), than mothers of children with no ASD/ID, while mothers of children with ASD with ID were no more likely to have a cancer-related hospital admission than other mothers. Mothers of children with autism without ID had increased risk of cancer, which may relate to common genetic pathways.
KeywordsAutism Intellectual disability Cancer Parents Genetics
This work was partly supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grant #572742. AJOW is supported by a Senior Research Fellowship from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, #1077966. We gratefully acknowledge the data contribution from the Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers (IDEA) Data-base.
All authors participated in study conception, design, analysis, and interpretation of data. JF analysed the data and was advised by NdK. JF wrote the initial manuscript and prepared subsequent drafts after input from all co-authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript for submission.
Availability of Data and Materials
Some access restrictions apply to the data underlying our findings. Our data was provided by a third party, the Western Australian Department of Health.1 Principal 3 of the conditions for ethical approval state that the information must not be further disclosed to others without prior approval from the Data Custodians and DOHHREC.2 Hence, interested persons would have to go through the same procedure as we did to obtain the dataset. All information regarding contact details and downloading of the necessary forms are available from the referenced web pages.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
No author reports a financial or non-financial competing interest.
Ethical approval for this study (#2011/64) was Granted by the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee (DOHHREC).
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Information paper: An introduction to socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA). Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2039.0.
- Australian Institute for Health and Welfare. (2015). Coded clinical data 2015. Available from: http://www.aihw.gov.au/hospitals-data/national-hospital-morbidity-data/coded-clinical-data/.
- Christensen, D., Davis, G., Draper, G., Mitrou, F., McKeown, S., Lawrence, D., et al. (2014). Evidence for the use of an algorithm in resolving inconsistent and missing Indigenous status in administrative data collections. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49(4), 423.Google Scholar
- Department of Health of Western Australia. (2011). What we collect and manage 2011, 12 May 2011. Available from: http://www.health.wa.gov.au/healthdata/statewide/index.cfm.
- Greenlee, R. T., Murray, T., Bolden, S., & Wingo, P. A. (2000). Cancer statistics, 2000. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 50(1), 7–33.Google Scholar
- Institute for Digital Research and Education. (2014). Supplemental notes to applied survival analysis. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Statistical Consulting Group, 16 April 2016. Available from: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/examples/asa/test_proportionality.htm.
- Klint, Å., Engholm, G., Storm, H., Tryggvadóttir, L., Gislum, M., Hakulinen, T., et al. (2010). Trends in survival of patients diagnosed with cancer of the digestive organs in the Nordic countries 1964–2003: Followed up to the end of 2006. Acta Oncologica, 49(5), 578–607.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwab, J. (2002). Multinomial logistic regression: basic relationships and complete problems. Austin: University of Texas.Google Scholar
- Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. (2014). ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM based on FY2014 ICD-9-CM codes New York: US Government. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/tools/conversion/2014/ICD9CM_to_ICD10CM_2014CF.pdf.
- World Health Organisation. (2006). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th Revision, Version for 2007. Available from: http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/.