Exploring What’s Missing: What Do Target Absent Trials Reveal About Autism Search Superiority?
We used eye-tracking to investigate the roles of enhanced discrimination and peripheral selection in superior visual search in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with ASD were faster at visual search than their typically developing peers. However, group differences in performance and eye-movements did not vary with the level of difficulty of discrimination or selection. Rather, consistent with prior ASD research, group differences were mainly the effect of faster performance on target-absent trials. Eye-tracking revealed a lack of left-visual-field search asymmetry in ASD, which may confer an additional advantage when the target is absent. Lastly, ASD symptomatology was positively associated with search superiority, the mechanisms of which may shed light on the atypical brain organization that underlies social-communicative impairment in ASD.
KeywordsAutism Attention Visual search Eye-tracking
This research was funded by NIDCD Grant U19 DC 03610 and by NIMH Grant K01 MH 073944. The authors are especially grateful to the children and families who participated in this study.
Both authors made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study. BK acquired the data, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. RMJ helped interpret the data and revised the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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