Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 782–796 | Cite as

Evaluation of Classroom Active Engagement in Elementary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Nicole Sparapani
  • Lindee Morgan
  • Vanessa P. Reinhardt
  • Christopher Schatschneider
  • Amy M. Wetherby
Original Paper

Abstract

This study evaluated the classroom measure of active engagement (CMAE), an observational tool designed to measure active engagement in students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 196 students with ASD and their educators (n = 126) who were video-recorded at the beginning of the school year. Findings documented limited active engagement overall, with students spending less than half of the observation well-regulated, productive, or independent and infrequently directing eye gaze and communicating. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the structure of the CMAE was represented by a 5-factor model. These findings underscore the need for improved active engagement in students with ASD and show promise for a tool to measure behaviors associated with positive educational outcomes in students with ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Active engagement Emotional regulation Classroom participation Social connectedness Initiating communication 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by Grant R324A100174 (Co-PI, Wetherby, Morgan) from the US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Nicole Sparapani was supported in part by Grant H325D070086 (PI Wetherby) from the US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services. Vanessa P. Reinhardt was supported in part by Grant UA3 MC 11055 AIR-B from the Maternal and Child Health Research Program, Maternal and Child Health Bureau (Combating Autism Act Initiative), Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed sufficiently to the manuscript. Because this study was part of the larger CSI Project, LM, CS, and AW were responsible for the study design, participant recruitment, and overseeing of the project. NS, LM, and AW were responsible for the conceptualization and design of the CMAE. NS was involved in coding of the observational data, data analysis, interpretation of the findings, and writing of the manuscript. VR was involved in data analysis, interpretation of the findings, and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, D. H., Kupersmidt, J. B., Voegler-Lee, M. E., & Marshall, N. (2012). The association between preschool children’s social functioning and their emergent academic skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 376–386. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.12.009.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baio, J. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. In Morbidity and mortality weekly report. surveillance summaries. vol 61(3). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22456193
  5. Brownell, R. (Ed.). (2000). Expressive one-word picture vocabulary test. Novato: Academic Therapy Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Bryan, L. C., & Gast, D. L. (2000). Teaching on-task and on-schedule behaviors to high-functioning children with autism via picture activity schedules. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 553–567. doi: 10.1023/A:1005687310346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder—Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. In Surveillance summary. 28, March, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63, pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  8. Charman, T., Drew, A., Baird, C., & Baird, G. (2003). Measuring early language development in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Infant Form). Journal of Child Language, 30(1), 213–236. doi: 10.1017/S0305000902005482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J. A., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00377.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Connor, C. M., Ponitz, C. C., Phillips, B. M., Travis, Q. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). First graders’ literacy and self-regulation gains: The effect of individualizing student instruction. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 433–455. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2010.06.003.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cosier, M., Causton-Theoharis, J., & Theoharis, G. (2013). Does access matter? Time in general education and achievement for students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 34(6), 323–332. doi: 10.1177/0741932513485448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the early start Denver model. Pediatrics, 125(1), e17–e23. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0958.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early social attention impairments in autism: social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, 271–283. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DSM-IV-TR. (2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision. American Psychiatric Association, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunn, D. M., & Dunn, L. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test: Manual. Pearson.Google Scholar
  16. Estes, A., Rivera, V., Bryan, M., Cali, P., & Dawson, G. (2011). Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1044–1052. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1127-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenwood, C. R. (1996). The case for performance-based instructional models. School Psychology Quarterly, 11, 283–296. doi: 10.1037/h0088935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenwood, C. R., Horton, B. T., & Utley, C. A. (2002). Academic engagement: current perspectives on research and practice. School Psychology Review, 31, 328–349. Retrieved from http://www.naspweb.org/publications/index.html
  19. Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system: Preschool, elementary level. St Paul: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  20. Guo, Y., Connor, C. M., Tompkins, V., & Morrison, F. J. (2011). Classroom quality and student engagement: contributions to third-grade reading skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 157. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00157.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Iovannone, R., Dunlap, G., Huber, H., & Kincaid, D. (2003). Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18, 150–165. doi: 10.1177/10883576030180030301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kasari, C., & Smith, T. (2013). Interventions in schools for children with autism spectrum disorder: Methods and recommendations. Autism, 17, 254–267. doi: 10.1177/1362361312470496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationship matter: linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262–273. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08283.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: A Division of Guilford Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Laurent, A., & Rubin, E. (2004). Challenges in emotional regulation in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Topics in Language Disorders, 4, 286–297. doi: 10.1097/00011363-200410000-00006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leekam, S. R., Prior, M. R., & Uljarevic, M. (2011). Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders: A review of research in the last decade. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 562–593. doi: 10.1037/a0023341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Locke, J., Rotheram-Fuller, E., & Kasari, C. (2012). Exploring the social impact of being a typical peer model for included children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1895–1905. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1437-0.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., & Risi, S. (2002). Autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  29. Mashburn, A. J., Justice, L. M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Peer effects on children’s language achievement during pre-kindergarten. Child Development, 80, 686–702. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01291.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 471–490. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., Skibbe, L. E., & Foster, T. D. (2014). Social skills and problem behaviors as mediators of the relationship between behavioral self-regulation and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 298–309. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mundy, P., & Burnette, C. (2005). Joint attention and neurodevelopment. In F. Volkmar, A. Klin, & R. Paul (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 650–681). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen and Muthen.Google Scholar
  34. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism.Google Scholar
  35. Nicholson, H., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., & Heest, J. V. (2011). The effects of antecedent physical activity on the academic engagement of children with autism spectrum disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 198–213. doi: 10.1002/pits.20537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pelios, L., MacDuff, G., & Axelrod, S. (2003). The effects of a treatment package in establishing independent academic work skills in children with autism. Education and Treatment of Children. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=EJ678678
  37. Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45, 605–619. doi: 10.1037/a0015365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Prizant, B. M., Wetherby, A. M., Rubin, E., Laurent, A. C., & Rydell, J. P. (2006). The SCERTS model: Volume I assessment: Volume II program planning and intervention. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Richler, J., Bishop, S. L., Kleinke, J. R., & Lord, C. (2007). Restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 73–85. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0332-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Richler, J., Huerta, M., Bishop, S. L., & Lord, C. (2010). Developmental trajectories of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests in children with autism spectrum disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 55–69. doi: 10.1017/s0954579409990265.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford–Binet intelligence scale (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
  42. Rotheram-Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1228–1234. doi: 10.111/j.1469-7610.2010.02289.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ruble, L. A., & Robson, D. M. (2007). Individual and environmental determinants of engagement in autism. Journal of Autism and Related Disabilities, 37, 1457–1468. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0222-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sektnan, M., McClelland, M. M., Acock, A., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). Relations between early family risk, children’s behavioral regulation, and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 464–479. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.02.005.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Shapiro, E. S. (2003). Behavioral observation of students in schools (BOSS). Computer Software. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  46. Tucker, C. M., Zayco, R. A., Herman, K. C., Reinke, W. M., Trujillo, M., Carraway, K., & Ivery, P. D. (2002). Teacher and child variables as predictors of academic engagement among low-income African American children. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 477–488. doi: 10.1002/pits.10038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Turner, M. (1999). Annotation: Repetitive behavior in autism: A review of psychological research. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 40, 839–849. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Volkmar, F., Siegel, M., Woodbury-Smith, M., King, B., McCracken, J., & State, M. (2014). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 237–257. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.10.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Wellborn, J. & Connell, J. P. (1998). Rochester assessment package for schools, student report. Unpublished manuscript, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. (2002). Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile—First (Normed ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Sparapani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lindee Morgan
    • 1
  • Vanessa P. Reinhardt
    • 1
    • 3
  • Christopher Schatschneider
    • 3
    • 4
  • Amy M. Wetherby
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida State University Autism Institute, College of MedicineFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.The Institute of the Science of Teaching and LearningArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, Florida Center for Reading ResearchFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations