Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 893–901 | Cite as

New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Group Differentiation

  • Maretha de Jonge
  • Jeremy Parr
  • Michael Rutter
  • Simon Wallace
  • Chantal Kemner
  • Anthony Bailey
  • Herman van Engeland
  • Andrew Pickles
Original Paper


To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. This study investigated whether the instruments differentiated between parents of children with autism, and parents of children with Down syndrome (DS). The BAP scores of parents of 28 multiplex autism families were compared with parents from, 32 DS families. The BAP measures provided good group differentiation but when considered together, the subject interview did not improve group differentiation. The differentiation was better for fathers than mothers. The measures do carry an important degree of validity; whether they can differentiate the BAP from other social disorders should be tested.


Broader autism phenotype Group differentiation Interview measures Observational measures Diagnosis 



We are grateful to: participating families, Dutch ASD Parent Association, Dutch Down Syndrome Association, Ms. Scherpenisse and Ms. Steggehuis for data collection. This work was supported in part by the Janusz Korczack Foundation. Funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, manuscript preparation/publication. The IMGSAC are grateful for project grants from: The Medical Research Council, The Wellcome Trust, The Nancy Lurie Marks Family Foundation (GR071470MA), BIOMED 2 (CT-97-2759), EC Fifth Framework (QLG2-CT-1999-0094), Telethon—Italy (GGP030227), Beatrice Surovell Haskells Fond for Child Mental Health Research of Copenhagen and the Danish Natural Science Research Council (9802210), Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Bologna, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Fondation France Telecom, Conseil Regional Midi-Pyrenees, Danish Medical Research Council, Sofiefonden.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maretha de Jonge
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeremy Parr
    • 3
    • 4
  • Michael Rutter
    • 5
  • Simon Wallace
    • 3
  • Chantal Kemner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anthony Bailey
    • 3
    • 6
  • Herman van Engeland
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrew Pickles
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Brain Center Rudolf MagnusUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.Institute of NeuroscienceNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  5. 5.MRC Centre for Social, Genetic and Developmental PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  7. 7.Department of Biostatistics, Institute of PsychiatryKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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