Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders in 12-Month-Old High-Risk Siblings by Parental Report
This study examines whether parental report of social-communicative and repetitive behaviors at 12 months can be helpful in identifying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in younger siblings of children with ASD [high-risk (HR)-siblings]. Parents of HR-siblings and infants without a family history of ASD completed the First Year Inventory at 12 months. Developmental outcomes were based on 24- or 36-month assessments. HR-siblings later diagnosed with ASD showed greater impairments in social communication than those with other developmental outcomes based on parental and clinician ratings. Parental report of decline in play and communication and impaired vocal imitation correctly classified a majority of ASD cases with high specificity. These preliminary findings have important implications for the development of early screening instruments for ASD in HR-siblings.
KeywordsASD High-risk siblings Screening Imitation
We would also like to thank Celine Saulnier, Amanda Steiner, Karen Bearss, Amy Carney, Liz Simmons, and Megan Lyons for their contribution to the sample characterization as well as Kerry O’Loughlin and Jessica Garczarek for assistance in data collection. We would like to thank Grace Baranek, Steve Reznick, Lauren Brown, Linda Watson, and Elizabeth Crais at the University of North Carolina for their comments on the manuscript. We express our appreciation to the families and their children for their time and participation. This study was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development P01 HD003008, Project 1 (PI: K Chawarska), the National Institutes of Mental Health R01MH087554-01 (PI: K Chawarska), and Autism Speaks #7614 (PI: Campbell).
Conflict of interest
Daniel Cambell, PhD, receives salary and stock options from Amgen Inc. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. The content of this study is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Mental Health, Yale Child Study Center, United States Air Force Medical Service or Department of Defense.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to their participation. This study was approved by the University’s Institutional Review Board and was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards established in the Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.Google Scholar
- Baranek, G. T., Watson, L. R., Crais, E., & Reznick, S. (2003). First year inventory (FYI) 2.0. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
- Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Olshen, R., & Stone, C. (1984). Classification and regression trees. New York, NY: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders–autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(3), 1–19.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Brian, J., Roberts, W., et al. (2012). A prospective study of autistic-like traits in unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
- IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19. (2010). Release 19.0.0.Google Scholar
- Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child, 2(3), 217–250.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Luyster, R., Gotham, K., Guthrie, W., Risi, S., & Rutter, M. (2012a). Autism diagnostic observation schedule–toddler module manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr, Leventhal, B. L., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Macari, S. L., Campbell, D., Gengoux, G. W., Saulnier, C. A., Klin, A. J., & Chawarska, K. (2012). Predicting developmental status from 12 to 24 months in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: A preliminary report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(12), 2636–2647.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Messinger, D., Young, G. S., Ozonoff, S., Dobkins, K., Carter, A., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2013). Beyond autism: A baby siblings research consortium study of high-risk children at three years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(3), 300–308.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mullen, E. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
- Ozonoff, S., Iosif, A. M., Baguio, F., Cook, I. C., Hill, M. M., Hutman, T., et al. (2010). A prospective study of the emergence of early behavioral signs of autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(3), 256–266.Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team. (2011). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Reznick, J. S., Baranek, G. T., Reavis, S., Watson, L. R., & Crais, E. R. (2007). A parent-report instrument for identifying one-year-olds at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism: The first year inventory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1691–1710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(2), 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rozga, A., Hutman, T., Young, G., Rogers, S., Ozonoff, S., Dapretto, M., et al. (2011). Behavioral profiles of affected and unaffected siblings of children with autism: Contribution of measures of mother-infant interaction and nonverbal communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(3), 287–301.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview-revised. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Siegel, B. (2004). The pervasive developmental disorders screening test II (PDDST-II). San Antonio TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Turner-Brown, L. M., Baranek, G. T., Reznick, J. S., Watson, L. R., Crais, E. R., Watson, L. R., et al. (2012). The first year inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children. Autism, 37(1), 49–61.Google Scholar