Psychometric Properties of the Mandarin Version of the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): An Exploratory Study
- 440 Downloads
Limited studies have investigated the latent autistic traits in the mainland Chinese population for autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This study explored the psychometric properties of a Mandarin Chinese version of the CAST in a sample consisting of 737 children in mainstream schools and 50 autistic cases. A combination of categorical data factor analysis and item response theory suggested a good-fit model of a two-factor solution for 28 items on the Mandarin CAST including social and communication, and inflexible/stereotyped language and behaviours (Goodness-of-fit indices: RMSEA = 0.029, CFI = 0.957, TLI = 0.950, SRMR = 0.064). The correlation between the two factors was moderate (GFC = 0.425). This study provided evidence for the CAST as a multidimensional measure for ASC screening in a Chinese population and also showed that the symptom manifestation of ASC in Chinese children shares similarity with western populations.
KeywordsAutism spectrum conditions Categorical data factor analysis Item response theory CAST China
We are grateful to the families who participated in this study. This study was funded by the Waterloo Foundation, the Peking University First Hospital, the Cambridge Institute of Public Health and the Autism Research Centre in the University of Cambridge. XS was partly funded by Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and Clare Hall of the University of Cambridge during the data collection and then funded by the International Development Fund - Cambridge-CUHK Collaboration on Autism Research in Hong Kong and China during the writing up of this paper. SBC, CA and BA were funded by the Medical Research Council UK and the Wellcome Trust, and the team were funded by the NIHR CLAHRC for the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust during the period of this work. FM was funded by MRC UK.
- Allison, C. (2009). The quantitative checklist for autism in toddlers (Q-CHAT). (PhD) University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., Pasco, G. (2008). The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): A normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18–24 months of age—preliminary report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38(8), 1414–1425.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Bandalos, D. L., & Boehm-Kaufman, M. R. (2009). Four common misconceptions in exploratory factor analysis In Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bartholomew, D. J., Steel, F., Moustaki, I., & Galbraith, J. (2002). The analysis and interpretation of multivariate data for social scientists. London: Chapman & Hall/CRC.Google Scholar
- Bolte, S., Westerwald, E., Holtmann, M., Freitag, C., & Poustka, F. (2011). Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: The clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(1), 66–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of factor analysis. Retrieved 6 Aug 2012, from http://www.stat-help.com/notes.html.
- Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Cath, D. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): A study in Dutch population and patient groups. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(8), 1555–1566.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kamio, Y. (2007). Early detection of and diagnostic tools for Asperger's disorder. Nippon Rinsho/Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine, 65(3), 477–480.Google Scholar
- Kanne, S. M., Wang, J., & Christ, S. E. (2011). The Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ): Development of a brief self-report measure of subthreshold autism traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 769–780.Google Scholar
- Khalid, M. N. (2011). An overview of statistical approaches for assessing model fit. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 8(2), 69–87.Google Scholar
- Kline, P. (2000). Handbook of psychometric testing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Lord, F. M. (1980). Applications of item response theory to practical testing problems. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
- Muthén, B., du Toit, S. H. C., & Spisic, D. (1997). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical and continuous outcomes. Psychometrika (accepted).Google Scholar
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. (2009). MPlus short courses. http://www.statmodel.com/course_materials.shtml.
- Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2010). Mplus Users’ guide version 6.Google Scholar
- Posserud, B., Lundervold, A. J., Steijnen, M. C., Verhoeven, S., Stormark, K. M., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Factor analysis of the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. Autism, 12(1), 99–112.Google Scholar
- Robinson, E. B., Koenen, K. C., McCormick, M. C., Munir, K., Hallett, V., & Happe, F. (2011). Evidence that autistic traits show the same etiology in the general population and at the quantitative extremes (5, 2.5, and 1 %). Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1113–1121.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sharp, C., Goodyer, I. M., & Croudace, T. J. (2006). The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ): A unidimensional item response theory and categorical data factor analysis of self-report ratings from a community sample of 7-through 11-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(3), 379–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shuster, J., Perry, A., Bebko, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2013). Review of factor analytic studies examining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(1), 90–110.Google Scholar
- Stewart, M. E., & Austin, E. J. (2010). The structure of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from a student sample in Scotland. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(3), 224–228.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. (2003). Screening for autism spectrum disorders. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorder: Diagnosis criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar