Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 937–947 | Cite as

Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA′ Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

  • Margo B. Holm
  • Joanne M. Baird
  • Young Joo Kim
  • Kuwar B. Rajora
  • Delma D’Silva
  • Lin Podolinsky
  • Carla Mazefsky
  • Nancy Minshew
Original Paper


We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community.


Autism spectrum disorder Single subject design Home Community 



This study could not have been implemented without an anonymous Grant to the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Occupational Therapy, the participation of the parents and boys, and the therapeutic riding staff of Nickers ‘n Neighs Therapeutic Riding Center.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margo B. Holm
    • 1
  • Joanne M. Baird
    • 1
  • Young Joo Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kuwar B. Rajora
    • 1
    • 3
  • Delma D’Silva
    • 1
    • 4
  • Lin Podolinsky
    • 5
  • Carla Mazefsky
    • 6
    • 7
  • Nancy Minshew
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (SHRS)University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Integrated Resources, Inc.EdisonUSA
  3. 3.Kindred HealthcareRockvilleUSA
  4. 4.Kindred Rehab SVCS Inc., DBA Rehab CareLouisvilleUSA
  5. 5.Nickers ‘N NeighsAcmeUSA
  6. 6.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  8. 8.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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