Bottom-Up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism
- 1.4k Downloads
We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether social stimuli and bottom-up scene properties were congruent or competing. This initial reliance on bottom-up strategies correlated with severity of social impairment as well as receptive language impairments. These data provide support for the idea that there is enhanced reliance on bottom-up attention strategies in ASDs, and that this may have a negative impact on social and language development.
KeywordsBottom-up attention Saliency Visual attention Autism Eye tracking Social attention
Special gratitude to the Center for the Study of Children at Risk at Brown University and the children and families who participated in this research. Also thanks to the James S. McDonnell Award in Human Cognition (DA) and Autism Speaks Translational Postdoctoral Fellowship (ET).
- Bayley, N. (2005). Bayley scales of infant development (3rd ed.). San Antonio: PsychCorp.Google Scholar
- Carpenter, M., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(4), i–vi, 1–143.Google Scholar
- Elison, J. T., Paterson, S. J., Wolff, J. J., Reznick, J. S., Sasson, N. J., Gu, H., et al. (2013). White matter microstructure and atypical visual orienting in 7-month-olds at risk for autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(8), 899–908.Google Scholar
- Elsabbagh, M., Volein, A., Holmboe, K., Tucker, L., Csibra, G., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2009). Visual orienting in the early broader autism phenotype: Disengagement and facilitation. Journal of Child Psychological Psychiatry, 50(5), 637–642.Google Scholar
- Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Markant, J., & Amso, D. (2013). Selective memories: Infants’ encoding is enhanced in selection via suppression. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12084.
- Niebur, E., & Koch, C. (1996). Control of selective visual attention: Modeling the ‘where’ pathway. In D. Touretzky, M. Mozer, & M. Hasselmo (Eds.), Neural information processing systems (pp. 802–808). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, third edition (WPPSI-III). San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (2002). Preschool language scale, fourth edition (PLS-4). San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar