Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study
- 2.8k Downloads
The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7 % of children were reported as having ASD (95 % CI 1.4–2.0) at mean age 7.2 years (SD = 0.2; range = 6.3–8.2). 1.4 % reportedly had ADHD (95 % CI 1.2–1.7), and 0.3 % had both ASD and ADHD (95 % CI 0.2–0.5). After adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage, only male sex (p < 0.001 for both conditions) and cognitive ability, p = 0.004 (ASD); p = 0.01 (ADHD) remained strongly associated. The observed prevalence of parent-reported ASD is high compared to earlier UK and US estimates. Parent-reported ADHD is low compared to US estimates using the same measure.
KeywordsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder Autism Prevalence Co-morbidity Pervasive developmental disorder Autism spectrum disorder
We would like to thank the Millennium Cohort Study families for their time and cooperation, as well as the Millennium Cohort Study team at the Institute of Education, London, UK. We also acknowledge funding from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for the South West Peninsula. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health in England.
- Akinbami, L. J., Liu, X., Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children aged 5–17 years in the United States, 1998–2009. NCHS Data Brief, (70), 1–8.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision [DSM-IV-TR]).Google Scholar
- Bracken, B. A. (1999). Psychoeducational assessment of preschool children (3rd ed.). London: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Caron, K. G., Schaaf, R. C., Benevides, T. W., & Gal, E. (2012). Cross-cultural comparison of sensory behaviors in children with autism. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association, 66(5), e77–e80. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.004226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Charach, A., Dashti, B., Carson, P., Booker, L., Lim, C. G., Lillie, E., et al. (2011, October). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Text. Retrieved December 21, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK82368/.
- Green, H., McGinnity, A., Meltzer, H., Ford, T., & Goodman, R. (2005). Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain, 2004. London: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Grinker, R. R. (2008). Unstrange minds: Remapping the world of autism. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Grinker, R. R., Chambers, N., Njongwe, N., Lagman, A. E., Guthrie, W., Stronach, S., et al. (2012). “Communities” in community engagement: Lessons learned from autism research in South Korea and South Africa. Autism Research, 5(3), 201–210. doi: 10.1002/aur.1229.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hansen, K., & Joshi, H. (2010). Children of the 21st century: The first five years. London: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Linnet, K. M., Dalsgaard, S., Obel, C., Wisborg, K., Henriksen, T. B., Rodriguez, A., et al. (2003). Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: Review of the current evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6), 1028–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics. (2012). Health, United States, 2011: With special feature on socioeconomic status and health. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm.
- Pastor, P. N., & Rueben, C. A. (2008). Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004–2006. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology. Retrieved from Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, no. 237.Google Scholar
- Plewis, I. (2007). The Millennium Cohort study: Technical report on sampling. Centre for Longitudinal Studies, London. Retrieved from http://www.esds.ac.uk/doc/5350/mrdoc/pdf/mcs_technical_report_on_sampling_4th_edition.pdf.
- Reid, R., Hakendorf, P., & Prosser, B. (2002). Use of psychostimulant medication for ADHD in South Australia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(8), 906–913.Google Scholar
- Sandin, S., Hultman, C. M., Kolevzon, A., Gross, R., MacCabe, J. H., & Reichenberg, A. (2012). Advancing maternal age is associated with increasing risk for autism: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(5), 477.e1–486.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scahill, L., Schwab-Stone, M., Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Zhang, H., & Kasl, S. (1999). Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school-age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(8), 976–984. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199908000-00013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Totsika, V., Hastings, R., Emerson, E., Berridge, D., & Lancaster, G. (2011). Behavior problems at 5 years of age and maternal mental health in autism and intellectual disability. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(8), 1137–1147.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar