Time-Based and Event-Based Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Roles of Executive Function and Theory of Mind, and Time-Estimation
- 1.7k Downloads
Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but undiminished event-based, prospective memory among children with ASD. In the ASD group, time-based prospective memory performance was associated significantly with diminished theory of mind, but not with diminished cognitive flexibility. There was no evidence that time-estimation ability contributed to time-based prospective memory impairment in ASD.
KeywordsAutism Prospective memory Theory of mind Executive functioning Cognitive flexibility Set-shifting Time-perception
The study was funded by an Economic and Social Research Council UK Grant awarded to Dr Williams, and Professors Jarrold and Boucher (Number: RES-000-22-4125). Sophie Lind was supported by an Economic and Social Research Council (UK) Research Grant (RES-062-23-2192) during this study. Sincere thanks to all of the participants who took part in this study and to their parents/guardians. Without their support, this research would not be possible. Thanks to Miss Heather Payne and Miss Catherine Grainger for support with data collection. Many thanks, also, to Dr Catherine Jones, Dr Mareike Altgassen, and Dr Maria Brandimonte for very helpfully answering queries about their respective studies.
- Allman, M., & DeLeon, I. (2011). No time like the present: Time perception in autism. In A. Giordana & V. Lombardi (Eds.), Causes and risks for autism (pp. 65–76). Place: Nova Science Publisher.Google Scholar
- Altgassen, M., Koban, N., & Kliegel, M. (2012). Do adults with autism spectrum disorders compensate in naturalistic prospective memory tasks? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(10), 2141–2151.Google Scholar
- Boucher, J. (2001). Lost in a sea of time: Time-parsing and autism. In C. Hoerl & T. McCormack (Eds.), Time and memory (pp. 111–135). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in adolescents and adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(5), 533–542.Google Scholar
- Constantino, J. N., Davis, S. A., Todd, R. D., Schindler, M. K., Gross, M. M., Brophy, S. L., et al. (2003). Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: Comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(4), 427–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crane, L., Lind, S. E. & Bowler, D. M. (2012). Remembering the past and imagining the future in autism spectrum disorder, Memory. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.712976.
- Harris, J. E., & Wilkins, A. J. (1982). Remembering to do things: A theoretical framework and an illustrative experiment. Human Learning, 1, 123–136.Google Scholar
- Jones, C. R. G., Happé, F., Pickles, A., Marsden, A. J. S., Tregay, J., Baird, G., et al. (2011). ‘Everyday memory’ impairments in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 455–464.Google Scholar
- Kliegel, M., McDaniel, M. A., & Einstein, G. O. (2008). Prospective memory: Cognitive, neuroscience, developmental, and applied perspectives. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100.Google Scholar
- Mervis, C. B., & Klein-Tasman, B. P. (2004). Methodological issues in group-matching designs: Alpha levels for control variable comparisons and measurement characteristics of control and target variables. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 7–17.Google Scholar
- Ozonoff, S., & Strayer, D. L. (1997). Inhibitory function in nonretarded children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 59–77.Google Scholar
- Raz, N. (2000). Ageing of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: Integration of structural and functional findings. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of ageing and cognition (2nd edition) (pp. 1–90). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Skuse, D., Warrington, R., Bishop, D., Chowdhury, U., Lau, J., Mandy, W., et al. (2004). The developmental, dimensional and diagnostic interview (3di): A novel computerized assessment for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(5), 548–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilson, B. A. C., & Baddeley, A. D. (1991). The Rivermead behavioural memory test (2nd ed.). Bury St Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company.Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation. (1993). International classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines (10th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Heath Organisation.Google Scholar