Abnormal Transient Pupillary Light Reflex in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
- 723 Downloads
Computerized binocular infrared pupillography was used to measure the transient pupillary light reflex (PLR) in both children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and children with typical development. We found that participants with ASDs showed significantly longer PLR latency, smaller constriction amplitude and lower constriction velocity than children with typical development. The PLR latency alone can be used to discriminate the ASD group from the control group with a cross-validated success rate of 89.6%. By adding the constriction amplitude, the percentage of correct classification can be further improved to 92.5%. In addition, the right-lateralization of contraction anisocoria that was observed in participants with typical development was not observed in those with ASDs. Further studies are necessary to understand the origin and implications of these observations. It is anticipated that as potential biomarkers, these pupillary light reflex measurements will advance our understanding of neurodevelopmental differences in the autism brain.
KeywordsAutism Pupillary light reflex Biomarker
This research was partially supported by a research grant from the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation. The authors thank Dr. Bo Lei for his help with vision exams in a portion of the participants.
- Barbur, J. L. (2003). Learning from the pupil: studies of basic mechanisms and clinical application. In L. M. Chalupa & J. S. Werner (Eds.), The Visual Neurosciences (pp. 641–656). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Cleavinger, H. B., Bigler, E. D., Johnson, J. L., Lu, J., McMahon, W., & Lainhart, J. E. (2008). Quantitative magnetic resonance image analysis of the cerebellum in macrocephalic and normocephalic children and adults with autism. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 401–413. doi: 10.1017/S1355617708080594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Loewenfeld, I. E. (1999). The pupil. Anatomy, physiology and clinical applications. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Couteur, A. L. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. doi: 10.1007/BF02172145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr, Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule–generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1005592401947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
- Wang, K., Zhang, H., Ma, D., Bucan, M., Glessner, J. T., Abrahams, B. S., Salyakina, D., Imielinski, M., Bradfield, J. P., Sleiman, P. M., Kim, C. E., Hou, C., Frackelton, E., Chiavacci, R., Takahashi, N., Sakurai, T., Rappaport, E., Lajonchere, C. M., Munson, J., Estes, A., Korvatska, O., Piven, J., Sonnenblick, L. I., & Alvarez Retuerto, A. I., Herman, E. I., Dong, H., Hutman, T., Sigman, M., Ozonoff, S., Klin, A., Owley, T., Sweeney, J. A., Brune, C. W., Cantor, R. M., Bernier, R., Gilbert, J. R., Cuccaro, M. L., McMahon, W. M., Miller, J., State, M. W., Wassink, T. H., Coon, H., Levy, S. E., Schultz, R. T., Nurnberger, J. I., Haines, J. L., Sutcliffe, J. S., Cook, E. H., Minshew, N. J., Buxbaum, J. D., Dawson, G., Grant, S. F., Geschwind, D. H., Pericak-Vance, M. A., Schellenberg, G. D., & Hakonarson, H. (2009). Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature07999.
- Yu, M., Kautz, M. A., Thomas, M. L., Johnson, D., Hotchkiss, E. R., & Russo, M. B. (2007). Operational implications of varying ambient light levels and time-of-day effects on saccadic velocity and pupillary light reflex. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 27, 130–141. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2006.00450.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar