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Reduced Gyral Window and Corpus Callosum Size in Autism: Possible Macroscopic Correlates of a Minicolumnopathy

  • Manuel F. Casanova
  • Ayman El-Baz
  • Meghan Mott
  • Glenn Mannheim
  • Hossam Hassan
  • Rachid Fahmi
  • Jay Giedd
  • Judith M. Rumsey
  • Andrew E. Switala
  • Aly Farag
Original Paper

Abstract

Minicolumnar changes that generalize throughout a significant portion of the cortex have macroscopic structural correlates that may be visualized with modern structural neuroimaging techniques. In magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of fourteen autistic patients and 28 controls, the present study found macroscopic morphological correlates to recent neuropathological findings suggesting a minicolumnopathy in autism. Autistic patients manifested a significant reduction in the aperture for afferent/efferent cortical connections, i.e., gyral window. Furthermore, the size of the gyral window directly correlated to the size of the corpus callosum. A reduced gyral window constrains the possible size of projection fibers and biases connectivity towards shorter corticocortical fibers at the expense of longer association/commisural fibers. The findings may help explain abnormalities in motor skill development, differences in postnatal brain growth, and the regression of acquired functions observed in some autistic patients.

Keywords

Autistic disorder Corpus callosum Magnetic resonance imaging Telencephalon 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The series of patients and controls were collected under the guidance and support of Dr. Judith Rapoport, Chief of the Child Psychiatry Branch at the National institute of Mental Heath.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel F. Casanova
    • 1
  • Ayman El-Baz
    • 2
  • Meghan Mott
    • 1
  • Glenn Mannheim
    • 3
  • Hossam Hassan
    • 4
  • Rachid Fahmi
    • 4
  • Jay Giedd
    • 5
  • Judith M. Rumsey
    • 6
    • 7
  • Andrew E. Switala
    • 1
  • Aly Farag
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Psychiatry Products, Food and Drug AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  5. 5.Child Psychiatry BranchNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Neurodevelopmental Disorders BranchNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA
  7. 7.Division of Adult Translational ResearchNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA

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