Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 895–906 | Cite as

Sympathetic Under-Arousal and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Jason K. Baker
  • Rachel M. Fenning
  • Stephen A. Erath
  • Brian R. Baucom
  • Jacquelyn Moffitt
  • Mariann A. Howland


Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly exhibit co-occurring externalizing behavior problems, which can impede learning opportunities and contribute significantly to caregiver stress. Substantial theory and research has linked under-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system to increased externalizing problems in children without ASD, but under-arousal has not been considered as an explanatory mechanism for individual differences among children with ASD. We tested the notion that lower electrodermal activity (EDA) would predict more externalizing problems in children with ASD, and considered the degree to which parent co-regulatory support could buffer this risk. Forty children with ASD between the ages of 4 and 11 years and their primary caregivers participated in a laboratory visit that included various play, compliance, and problem-solving regulatory tasks. EDA was measured through wireless wrist sensors, parental scaffolding was observed during a dyadic problem-solving task, and parents rated their children’s externalizing behavior problems. As predicted, low EDA during the compliance-oriented tasks directly predicted higher child externalizing problems. Parental scaffolding moderated the link between under-arousal during the problem-solving regulatory tasks and externalizing problems such that the relation was observed in the context of low, but not high, support. Implications for relevant theories (e.g., fearlessness theory, stimulation-seeking theory) are discussed, and the potential for psychophysiological patterns to inform intervention with these children is considered.


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Electrodermal activity Externalizing behavior problems Parental scaffolding Psychophysiology 



This project was funded by an intramural faculty grant awarded to the first author and by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R15HD087877), awarded to the first two authors. Mariann Howland is now at the University of California, Irvine.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (2009). The Achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA): Development, findings, theory, and applications. Burlington: University of Vermont Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., Crnic, K. A., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2007). Prediction of social skills in 6-year-old children with and without developmental delays: Contributions of early regulation and maternal scaffolding. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 375–391. doi: 10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0375:POSSIY]2.0.CO;2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, J. K., Messinger, D. S., Lyons, K. K., & Grantz, C. J. (2010). A pilot study of maternal sensitivity in the context of emergent autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 988–999. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-0948-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., Howland, M., Baucom, B. R., Moffitt, J., & Erath, S. A. (2015). Brief report: A pilot study of parent-child biobehavioral synchrony in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 4140–4146. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2528-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray’s motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13(2), 183–214. doi: 10.1017/s0954579401002012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beauchaine, T. P., Neuhaus, E., Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Reid, M. J., Chipman, J., Brekke, A., et al. (2015). Electrodermal responding predicts responses to, and may be altered by, preschool intervention for ADHD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83, 293–303. doi: 10.1037/a0038405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellini, S. (2004). Social skill deficits and anxiety in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19(2), 78–86. doi: 10.1177/10883576040190020201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ben Shalom, D., Mostofsky, S. H., Hazlett, R. L., Goldberg, M. C., Landa, R. J., Faran, Y., et al. (2006). Normal physiological emotions but differences in expression of conscious feelings in children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(3), 395–400. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0077-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boucsein, W., Fowles, D. C., Grimnes, S., Ben-Shakhar, G., Roth, W. T., Dawson, M. E., et al. (2012). Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology, 49, 1017–1034. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01384.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. de Bruin, E. I., Ferdinand, R. F., Meester, S., de Nijs, F. A., & Verheij, F. (2007). High rates of psychiatric co-morbidity in PDD-NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 877–886. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0215-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunford, N., Evans, S. W., Zoccola, P. M., Owens, J. S., Flory, K., & Speil, C. F. (2016). Correspondence between heart rate variability and emotion dysregulation in children, including children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0257-2 Online ahead of print.
  12. Cappadocia, M. C., Desrocher, M., Pepler, D., & Schroeder, J. H. (2009). Contextualizing the neurobiology of conduct disorder in an emotion dysregulation framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 506–518. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Braun, K. V. et al. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years – Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network. MMWR Surveillance Summary for 2012. pp. 1-23. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6503a1.
  14. Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., pp. 1–23). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00673.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social responsiveness scale, second edition (SRS-2). Western Psychological Services: Manual. Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  17. Dawson, M., Schell, A., & Filion, D. (2000). The electrodermal system. In J. Cacioppo, L. Tassinary, & G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (2nd ed., pp. 200–223). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. van Dooren, M., de Vries, J., & Janssen, J. H. (2012). Emotional sweating across the body: Comparing 16 different skin conductance measurement locations. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 298–304. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.01.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. El-Sheikh, M., & Erath, S. A. (2011). Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: State of the science and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 703–721. doi: 10.1017/S0954579411000034.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Erath, S. A., El-Sheikh, M., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior: Skin conductance level reactivity as a moderator. Child Development, 80, 578–592. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01280.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Erath, S. A., El-Sheikh, M., Hinnant, J. B., & Cummings, E. M. (2011). Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 47, 693–706. doi: 10.1037/a0021909.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Faja, S., Murias, M., Beauchaine, T. P., & Dawson, G. (2013). Reward-based decision making and electrodermal responding by young children with autism spectrum disorders during a gambling task. Autism Research, 6(6), 494–505. doi: 10.1002/aur.1307.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fenning, R. M., & Baker, J. K. (2012). Mother-child interaction and resilience in children with early developmental risk. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(3), 411–420. doi: 10.1037/a0028287.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Fenning, R. M., Baker, J. K., Baucom, B. R., Erath, S. A., Howland, M. A., & Moffitt, J. (2017). Electrodermal activity and symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 1062–1072. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-3021-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fowles, D. C., Kochanska, G., & Murray, K. (2000). Electrodermal activity and temperament in preschool children. Psychophysiology, 37(6), 777–787. doi: 10.1017/S0048577200981836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., Boyle, M., Hanna, S., Duku, E., Zwaigenbaum, L., et al. (2013). Investigating phenotypic heterogeneity in children with autism spectrum disorder: A factor mixture modeling approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(3), 206–215. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02588.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gulsrud, A. C., Jahromi, L. B., & Kasari, C. (2010). The co-regulation of emotions between mothers and their children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 227–237. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0861-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hill, A. P., Zuckerman, K. E., Hagen, A. D., Kriz, D. J., Duvall, S. Q., van Santen, J., et al. (2014). Aggressive behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and correlates in a large clinical sample. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder, 8, 1121–1133. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hirstein, W., Iversen, P., & Ramachandran, V. S. (2001). Autonomic responses of autistic children to people and objects. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 268, 1883-1888. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2001.1724.
  31. Hoffman, C., Crnic, K. A., & Baker, J. K. (2006). Maternal depression and parenting: Implications for children’s emergent emotion regulation and behavioral functioning. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(4), 271–295. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0604_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Howlin, P., Magiati, I., & Charman, T. (2009). Systematic review of early intensive behavioral interventions for children with autism. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disorders, 114, 23–41. doi: 10.1352/2009.114:23-41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hubbard, J. A., McAuliffe, M. D., Morrow, M. T., & Romano, L. J. (2010). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: Precursors, outcomes, processes, experiences, and measurement. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 95–118. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00610.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hubert, B. E., Wicker, B., Monfardini, E., & Deruelle, C. (2009). Electrodermal reactivity to emotion processing in adults with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism, 13(1), 9–19. doi: 10.1177/1362361308091649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Jahromi, L., Meek, S., & Ober-Reynolds, S. (2012). Emotion regulation in the context of frustration in children with high functioning autism and their typical peers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(12), 1250–1258. doi: 10.1002/aur.1366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jose, P. E. (2013). ModGraph-I: A programme to compute cell means for the graphical display of moderational analyses (Version 3.0). Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved from
  37. Joseph, R. M., Ehrman, K., McNally, R., & Keehn, B. (2008). Affective response to eye contact and face recognition ability in children with ASD. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 947–955. doi: 10.1017/S1355617708081344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaartinen, M., Puura, K., Makela, T., Rannisto, M., Lemponen, R., Helminen, M., et al. (2012). Autonomic arousal to direct gaze correlates with social impairments among children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1917–1927. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1435-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kochanska, G. (1997). Multiple pathways to conscience for children with different temperaments: From toddlerhood to age five. Developmental Psychology, 33, 228–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kochanska, G., Tjebkes, T. L., & Forman, D. R. (1998). Children’s emerging regulation of conduct: Restraint, compliance, and internalization from infancy to the second year. Child Development, 69, 1378–1389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K. H., Aksan, N., & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother– Child and father– Child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: A longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 721–734. doi: 10.1007/s10802-014-9938-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., & Boldt, L. J. (2016). A cascade from disregard for rules of conduct at preschool age to parental power assertion at early school age to antisocial behavior in early preadolescence: Interplay with the child’s skin conductance level. Development and Psychopathology. doi: 10.1017/S095457941600095X Advance online publication.
  43. Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., & Surratt, A. (1992). Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 141–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kylliainen, A., & Hietanen, J. K. (2006). Skin conductance responses to another person’s gaze in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 517–525. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0091-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kylliainen, A., Wallace, S., Coutanche, M. N., Leppanen, J. M., Cusack, J., Bailey, A. J., et al. (2012). Affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 790-797. doi:10.111/j.1469-7610.2011.02522.X.Google Scholar
  46. Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathology, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 531–552. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule, second edition (ADOS-2). WPS: Manual. Torrance.Google Scholar
  48. Louwerse, A., van der Geest, J. N., Tulen, J. H. M., van der Ende, J., Van Gool, A. R., Verhulst, F. C., et al. (2013). Effects of eye gaze directions of facial images on looking behaviour and autonomic responses in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1043–1053. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2013.04.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lovass, O. I. (2002). Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques. Austin: Pro Ed.Google Scholar
  50. Lydon, S., Healy, O., Reed, P., Mulhern, T., Hughes, B. M., & Goodwin, M. S. (2015). A systematic review of physiological reactivity to stimuli in autism. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 19, 1–21. doi: 10.3109/17518423.2014.971975.Google Scholar
  51. Matthews, N. L., Pollard, E., Ober-Reynolds, S., Kirwan, J., Malligo, A., & Smith, C. J. (2015). Revisiting cognitive and adaptive functioning in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45(1), 138–156. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2200-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mazefsky, C., & White, S. (2014). Emotion regulation concepts & practice in autism spectrum disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(1), 15. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2013.07.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mazefsky, C. A., Anderson, R., Conner, C. M., & Minshew, N. (2012a). Child behavior checklist scores for school-aged children with autism: Preliminary evidence of patterns suggesting the need for referral. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33, 31–37. doi: 10.1007/s10862-010-9198-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mazefsky, C., Pelphrey, K., & Dahl, R. (2012b). The need for a broader approach to emotion regulation research in autism. Child Development Perspectives, 6(1), 92–97. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00229.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Mazefsky, C. A., Herrington, J., Siegel, M., Scarpa, A., Maddox, B. B., Scahill, L., & White, S. W. (2013). The role of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(7), 679–688. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. McClintock, K., Hall, S., & Oliver, C. (2003). Risk markers associated with challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(6), 405–416. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00517.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. McCormick, C., Hessl, D., Macari, S. L., Ozonoff, S., Green, C., & Rogers, S. J. (2014). Electrodermal and behavioral responses of children with autism spectrum disorders to sensory and repetitive stimuli. Autism Research, 7, 468–480. doi: 10.1002/aur.1382.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McDonald, N. M., Baker, J. K., & Messinger, D. S. (2016). Oxytocin and parent-child interaction in the development of empathy among children at risk for autism. Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 735–745. doi: 10.1037/dev0000104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McNaughton, N., & Corr, P. J. (2004). A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: Fear/anxiety and defensive distance. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 285–305. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Neuhaus, E., Bernier, R., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Electrodermal response to reward and non-reward among children with autism. Autism Research. doi: 10.1002/aur.1451. Online ahead of print.
  61. Pandolfi, V., Magyar, C. I., & Dill, C. A. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 986–995. doi: 10.1007/s/10803-009-0716-5.
  62. Pandolfi, V., Magyar, C. I., & Dill, C. A. (2012). An initial psychometric evaluation of the CBCL 6–18 in a sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 96–108. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2011.03.009.
  63. Picard, R. (2009). Future affective technology for autism and emotion communication. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 364, 3575–3584.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Picard, R. W., Fedor, S., & Ayzenberg, Y. (2015). Multiple arousal theory and daily-life electrodermal activity asymmetry. Emotion Review. doi: 10.1177/1754073914565517 Online ahead of print.
  65. Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3 predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: Evidence from the Mauritius child health project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10), 1457–1464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Riby, D. M., Whittle, L., & Doherty-Sneddon, G. (2012). Physiological reactivity to faces via live and video-mediated communication in typical and atypical development. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(4), 385–395. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2011.645019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rogers, S. J., & Ozonoff, S. (2005). What do we know about sensory dysfunction in autism? A critical review of the empirical evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(12), 1255–1268. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01431.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales (Fifth ed.). Itasca: Riverside.Google Scholar
  70. Roisman, G. I., Newman, D. A., Fraley, R. C., Haltigan, J. D., Groh, A. M., & Haydon, K. C. (2012). Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: Recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 389–409. doi: 10.1017/S0954579412000065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sano, A., Picard, R. W., & Stickgold, R. (2014). Quantitative analysis of wrist electrodermal activity during sleep. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94(3), 382–389. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.09.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Sheppes, G., Catran, E., & Meiran, N. (2009). Reappraisal (but not distraction) is going to make you sweat: Physiological evidence for self-control effort. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71, 91–96. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.06.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Sikora, D. M., Hall, T. A., Hartley, S. L., Gerrard-Morris, A. E., & Cagle, S. (2008). Does parent report of behavior differ across ADOS-G classifications: Analysis of scores from the CBCL and GARS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 440–448. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0407-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith, T., Klorman, R., & Mruzek, D. W. (2015). Predicting outcome of community-based early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 1271–1282. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0002-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stagg, S. D., Davis, R., & Heaton, P. (2013). Associations between language development and skin conductance responses to faces and eye gaze in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2303–2311. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1780-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stoppelbein, L., Biasini, F., Pennick, M., & Greening, L. (2016). Predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms among children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy and triple P—Positive parenting program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 475–495. doi: 10.1007/s/10802-007-9104-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ting, V., & Weiss, J. A. (2017). Emotion regulation and parent co-regulation in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-3009-9. Online ahead of print.
  79. Tonge, B. J., Brereton, A. V., Gray, K. M., & Einfeld, S. L. (1999). Behavioural and emotional disturbance in high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 3(2), 117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Weiss, J. A. (2014). Transdiagnostic case conceptualization of emotional problems in youth with ASD: An emotion regulation approach. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 21, 331–350. doi: 10.1111/cpsp.12084.Google Scholar
  81. White, S. W., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2009). Anxiety, social deficits, and loneliness in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(7), 1006–1013. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0713-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014). Social-cognitive, physiological, and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.05.012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason K. Baker
    • 1
  • Rachel M. Fenning
    • 1
  • Stephen A. Erath
    • 2
  • Brian R. Baucom
    • 3
  • Jacquelyn Moffitt
    • 1
  • Mariann A. Howland
    • 1
  1. 1.California State UniversityFullertonUSA
  2. 2.Auburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  3. 3.University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations