Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1069–1081 | Cite as

Dynamic Associations between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescents’ Depressive and Externalizing Symptoms

  • Chrystyna D. Kouros
  • Judy Garber
Article

Abstract

The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck Depression Inventory), child depression (Children’s Depression Inventory), and children’s externalizing symptoms (Youth Self-Report Form) were assessed annually. Data analyses using dynamic latent difference score structural equation models indicated that the observed relations between mothers’ and adolescents’ symptoms were stable across the 6 years. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted subsequent elevations in children’s depressive symptoms and in their externalizing problems over time. Among mothers with high initial levels of depression, children’s depressive symptoms predicted subsequent declines in mothers’ depressive symptoms. Children’s externalizing problems were not related to subsequent change in maternal symptoms.

Keywords

Adolescents Depressive symptoms Externalizing behavior Latent difference score models Maternal depression 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (R29 MH454580; K02 MH66249), NICHD Grant P30HD15052, and a Faculty Scholar Award (1214-88) and grant (173096) from the William T. Grant Foundation. Chrystyna D. Kouros was supported in part from an NIMH training grant (T32-MH18921) during preparation of this manuscript. We appreciate the cooperation of the Nashville Metropolitan School District, Drs. Binkley and Crouch, and we especially thank the parents and children who participated in the project.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). AMOS 16.0 user’s guide. Chicago: SmallWaters Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Beardslee, W. R., Versage, E. M., & Gladstone, T. R. G. (1998). Children of affectively ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1134–1141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. F., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erlbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63.Google Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Bouma, E. M., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2008). Stressful life events and depressive problems in early adolescent boys and girls: The influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 105, 185–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–262). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  9. Bumberry, W., Oliver, J. M., & McClure, J. N. (1978). Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 150–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Civic, D., & Holt, V. L. (2000). Maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems in a nationally representative normal birthweight sample. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 4, 215–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cortes, R. C., Fleming, C. B., Catalano, R. F., & Brown, E. C. (2006). Gender differences in the association between maternal depressed mood and child depressive phenomena from Grade 3 through Grade 10. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 815–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elgar, F. J., Curtis, L. J., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2003). Antecedent-consequence conditions in maternal mood and child adjustment: A four-year cross-lagged study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 362–374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Elgar, F. J., McGrath, P. J., Waschbusch, D. A., Stewart, S. H., & Curtis, L. J. (2004a). Mutual influences on maternal depression and child adjustment problems. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 441–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elgar, F. J., Waschbusch, D. A., McGrath, P. J., Stewart, S. H., & Curtis, L. J. (2004b). Temporal relations in daily-reported maternal mood and disruptive child behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fanti, K. A., Henrich, C. C., Brookmeyer, K. A., & Kuperminc, G. P. (2008). Toward a transactional model of parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent psychological adjustment. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 252–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., Kovacs, M., Lane, T., O’Rourke, F. E., & Alarcon, J. H. (2008). Emotion regulation in preschoolers: the roles of behavioral inhibition, maternal affective behavior, and maternal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 132–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferrer, E., & McArdle, J. J. (2003). Alternative structural models for multivariate longitudinal data analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 493–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garber, J., Ciesla, J.A., McCauley, E., Diamond, G., & Schloredt, K.A, (in press). Remission of depression in parents: Links to healthy functioning in their children. Child Development. Google Scholar
  19. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., Shanahan, M., & Elder, G. H. (1995). Mutual influences in parent and adolescent psychological distress. Developmental Psychology, 31, 406–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gerkensmeyer, J. E., Perkins, S. M., Scott, E. L., & Wu, J. (2008). Depressive symptoms among primary caregivers of children with mental health needs: Mediating and moderating variables. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 22, 135–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Pychological Review, 106, 458–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., Moilanen, K. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2008a). Reciprocal models of child behavior and depressive symptons in mothers and fathers in a sample of children at risk for early conduct problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 742–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gross, H. E., Shaw, D. S., & Moilanen, K. L. (2008b). Reciprocal associations between boys’ externalizing problems and mothers’ depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 693–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gunlicks, M. L., & Weissman, M. M. (2008). Change in child psychopathology with improvements in parental depression: A systematic review. Journal of the American Academy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2003). Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnoses in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 253–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Adrian, C. (1991). Timing of mother and child depression in a longitudinal study of children at risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 341–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammen, C., Burge, D., Burney, E., & Adrian, C. (1990a). Longitudinal study of diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1112–1117.Google Scholar
  28. Hammen, C., Burge, D., & Stansbury, K. (1990b). Relationship of mother and child variables to child outcomes in a high-risk sample. A causal modeling analysis. Developmental Psychology, 26, 24–30.Google Scholar
  29. Hawley, L. L., Ho, R. M. H., Zuroff, D. C., & Blatt, S. J. (2006). The relationship between perfectionism, depression, and therapeutic alliance during treatment for depression: Latent different score analyses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 930–942.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. Unpublished manuscript. New Haven: Yale University.Google Scholar
  31. Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent-child interaction among depressed fathers and mothers: Impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 391–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jaffee, S. R., & Poulton, R. (2006). Reciprocal effects of mothers’ depression and children’s problem behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. In A. C. Huston & M. N. Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood: Bridges to adolescence and adulthood (pp. 107–129). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kahn, R. S., Wise, P. H., Finkelstein, J. A., Bernstein, H. H., Lowe, J. A., & Homer, C. J. (1999). The scope of unmet maternal health needs in pediatric settings. Pediatrics, 103, 576–581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kennard, B. D., Hughes, J. L., Stewart, S. M., Mayes, T., Nightingale-Teresi, J., Rongong, T., et al. (2008). Maternal depressive symptoms in pediatric major depressive disorder: Relationship to acute treatment outcome. Journal of the American Academy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 694–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating scales to assess depression in school children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46, 305–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. McArdle, J. J., & Hamagami, F. (2001). Latent difference score structural models for linear dynamic analyses with incomplete longitudinal data. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sayer (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 139–175). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pettit, G. S., & Arsiwalla, D. D. (2008). Commentary on special section on “Bidirectional parent-child relationships”: The continuing evolution of dynamic, transactional model of parenting and youth behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 711–718.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P., Talati, A., Tang, M., Hughes, C. W., Garber, J., et al. (2008). Children of depressed mothers 1 year after the initiation of maternal treatment: Findings from the Star*D-child study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1136–1147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Radke-Yarrow, M., Nottelmann, E., Belmont, B., & Welsh, J. B. (1993). Affective interactions of depressed and non-depressed mothers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 683–695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Klein, D. N., & Seeley, J. R. (2005). Association of parental depression with psychiatric course from adolescence to young adulthood among formerly depressed individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 409–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rueter, M. A., & Conger, R. D. (1998). Reciprocal influences between parenting and adolescent problem-solving behavior. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1470–1482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sameroff, A. J. (1975). Early influences on development: Fact or fancy? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21, 267–294.Google Scholar
  43. Sbarra, D. A., & Allen, J. B. (2009). Decomposing depression: On the prospective and reciprocal dynamics of mood and sleep disturbances. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 171–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Swartz, H. A., Frank, E., Zuckoff, A., Cyranowski, J. M., Houck, P. R., Cheng, Y., et al. (2008). Brief interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1155–1162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Silk, J. S., Shaw, D. S., Skuban, E. M., Oland, A. A., & Kovacs, M. (2006). Emotion regulation strategies in offspring of childhood-onset depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 69–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sitarenios, G., & Kovacs, M. (1999). Use of the Child Depression Inventory. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (pp. 267–298). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  47. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1990). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID): History, rationale, and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 624–629.Google Scholar
  48. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  49. Trapolini, T., McMahon, C. A., & Ungerer, J. A. (2007). The effect of maternal depression and marital adjustment on young children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33, 794–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Verdeli, H., Ferro, T., Wickramaratne, P., Greenwald, S., Blanco, C., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). Treatment of depressed mothers of depressed children: Pilot study of feasibility. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 51–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P. J., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Pilowksy, D., & Verdeli, H. (2006). Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1001–1008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava, M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: A Star*D-Child Report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1389–1398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Human DevelopmentNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations