In this work, reduced graphite oxide (rGO) with a long-range-ordered layered structure and an expanded interlayer spacing is synthesized and utilized as an anode for sodium ion storage. Unlike Na+-solvent co-intercalation in flake graphite, the interaction between Na-ions and graphene layers of the rGO shows a capacitive behavior. All the surface defects, pores, and functional groups generated on the surface of rGO can contribute to additional capacity of sodium storage. Thereby, a reversible capacity of 145.7 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1 and a rate performance of 131.7 mAh g−1 at 1.8 A g−1 could be obtained. Capacity retention of 87.7 % after 900 cycles at 400 mA g−1 was also achieved. Further enhancement in cycling stability, with little capacity decay after 1500 cycles, was obtained after incorporating Ag onto the surface of the rGO. The rGO-Ag anode delivered higher energy density and power density as compared to rGO at the same current density. Even at a power density of 5493 W kg−1 (3A g−1, 24 C), the energy density was as high as 236.2 Wh kg−1. These results contribute to the development of a low-cost, high-performance sodium ion storage devices.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ding J, Wang H, Li Z et al (2013) Carbon nanosheet frameworks derived from peat moss as high performance sodium ion battery anodes. ACS Nano 7:11004–11015
Zhu Y, Han X, Xu Y et al (2013) Electrospun Sb/C fibers for a stable and fast sodium-ion battery anode. ACS Nano 7:6378–6386
David L, Bhandavat R, Singh G (2014) MoS2/graphene composite paper for sodium-ion battery electrodes. ACS Nano 8:1759–1770
Liu Y, Xu Y, Zhu Y et al (2013) Tin-coated viral nanoforests as sodium-ion battery anodes. ACS Nano 7:3627–3634
Prabakar SR, Hwang Y-H, Bae EG et al (2013) Graphene oxide as a corrosion inhibitor for the aluminum current collector in lithium ion batteries. Carbon 52:128–136
Winter M, Besenhard JO, Spahr ME, Novák P (1998) Insertion electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Adv Mater 10:725–763
Alcantara R, Madrigal FF, Lavela P et al (2000) Characterisation of mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) as active electrode material in lithium and sodium cells. Carbon 38:1031–1041
Johnson BA, White RE (1998) Characterization of commercially available lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 70:48–54
Bommier C, Luo W, Gao W -Y et al (2014) Predicting capacity of hard carbon anodes in sodium-ion batteries using porosity measurements. Carbon 76:165–174
Thomas P, Billaud D (2002) Electrochemical insertion of sodium into hard carbons. Electrochim Acta 47:3303–3307
Okamoto Y (2013) Density functional theory calculations of alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) graphite intercalation compounds. J Phys Chem C 118:16–19
Zhu Z, Lu G (2004) Comparative study of Li, Na, and K adsorptions on graphite by using ab initio method. Langmuir 20:10751–10755
Cao Y, Xiao L, Sushko ML et al (2012) Sodium ion insertion in hollow carbon nanowires for battery applications. Nano Lett 12:3783–3787
Nobuhara K, Nakayama H, Nose M et al (2013) First-principles study of alkali metal-graphite intercalation compounds. J Power Sources 243:585–587
Alcántara R, Lavela P, Ortiz GF, Tirado JL (2005) Carbon microspheres obtained from resorcinol-formaldehyde as high-capacity electrodes for sodium-ion batteries. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 8:A222–A225
Tanaike O, Inagaki M (1997) Ternary intercalation compounds of carbon materials having a low graphitization degree with alkali metals. Carbon 35:831–836
Kim H, Hong J, Yoon G et al (2015) Sodium intercalation chemistry in graphite. Energy Environ Sci 8:2963–2969
Kim H, Hong J, Park YU et al (2015) Sodium storage behavior in natural graphite using ether-based electrolyte systems. Adv Func Mater 25:534–541
Inagaki M, Tanaike O (2001) Determining factors for the intercalation into carbon materials from organic solutions. Carbon 39:1083–1090
Yun YS, Park KY, Lee B et al (2015) Sodium-ion storage in pyroprotein‐based carbon nanoplates. Adv Mater 27:6914–6921
Lin Z, Xia Q, Wang W et al (2019) Recent research progresses in ether-and ester-based electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries. InfoMat 1:376–389
Kate P, Goswami AK (2016) Synthesis of graphene oxide via modified Hummer’s approach and its characterization. I-manager’s. J Mater Sci 4:7–11
Hummers WS Jr., Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339–1339
Rahman MM, Wang J-Z, Wexler D et al (2010) Silver-coated TiO2 nanostructured anode materials for lithium ion batteries. J Solid State Electrochem 14:571–578
He B-L, Dong B, Li H-L (2007) Preparation and electrochemical properties of Ag-modified TiO2 nanotube anode material for lithium–ion battery. Electrochem Commun 9:425–430
Naebe M, Wang J, Amini A et al (2014) Mechanical property and structure of covalent functionalised graphene/epoxy nanocomposites. Sci Rep 4:4375
Yang H, Kannappan S, Pandian AS et al (2015) Nanoporous graphene materials by low-temperature vacuum-assisted thermal process for electrochemical energy storage. J Power Sources 284:146–153
Wang Y-X, Chou S-L, Liu H-K, Dou S-X (2013) Reduced graphene oxide with superior cycling stability and rate capability for sodium storage. Carbon 57:202–208
Dahn J (1991) Phase diagram of Lix C6. Phys Rev B 44:9170
Umeda M, Dokko K, Fujita Y et al (2001) Electrochemical impedance study of Li-ion insertion into mesocarbon microbead single particle electrode: Part I. Graphitized carbon. Electrochim Acta 47:885–890
Gotoh K, Ishikawa T, Shimadzu S et al (2013) NMR study for electrochemically inserted Na in hard carbon electrode of sodium ion battery. J Power Sources 225:137–140
Wen Y, He K, Zhu Y et al (2014) Expanded graphite as superior anode for sodium-ion batteries. Nat Commun 5:4033
Wenzel S, Hara T, Janek J, Adelhelm P (2011) Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries: improving the rate capability of carbon anode materials by templating strategies. Energy Environ Sci 4:3342–3345
Lin H, Li X, He X, Zhao J (2015) Application of a novel 3D nano-network structure for Ag-modified TiO2 film electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance. Electrochim Acta 173:242–251
Cao XY, Kim JH, Oh SM (2002) The effects of oxidation on the surface properties of MCMB-6-28. Electrochim Acta 47:4085–4089
Zhang S, Xu K, Jow T (2006) EIS study on the formation of solid electrolyte interface in Li-ion battery. Electrochim Acta 51:1636–1640
Zhang S, Xu K, Jow T (2004) Electrochemical impedance study on the low temperature of Li-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 49:1057–1061
Zhu Y, Xu Y, Liu Y et al (2013) Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries. Nanoscale 5:780–787
Chen T, Liu Y, Pan L et al (2014) Electrospun carbon nanofibers as anode materials for sodium ion batteries with excellent cycle performance. J Mater Chem A 2:4117–4121
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0601301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51572247), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2014EMM003). We also thank Professor Guanglei Cui of Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his help in the work of cell assembling.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, H., Li, Q., Li, L. et al. A modified reduced graphite oxide anode for sodium ion storage in ether‐based electrolyte. J Appl Electrochem (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10800-021-01538-0
- Sodium ion storage
- Reduced graphite oxide
- Ether‐based electrolyte