Modelling the transport of ions and electrochemical regeneration of the resin in a hybrid ion exchange/electrodialysis process for As(V) removal

  • E. P. Rivero
  • A. Ortega
  • M. R. Cruz-Díaz
  • I. González
Research Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents the 2D modeling of a laboratory scale ion exchange/electrodialysis (IXED) flow cell for removal of As(V) ions from water. The cell consists of a central compartment (DS) delimited by two anion membranes and packed with anion exchange resin, one compartment on each side of the central compartment (CC and AC compartment) lined with a cation exchange membrane and a rinse compartment at each end of the cell. The developed model comprises: the anion exchange in the resin bed in a process controlled by the mass transport rate; the ion transport in the solutions of resin-free compartments, in the membranes and resin, based on Nernst–Planck equation; and enhanced water dissociation at the anion membrane/solution interface. The obtained results show the potential profiles, Donnan potential, concentration polarization and the contribution of each mechanism (diffusion and migration) to ion transport rate as well as the effect of the potential difference on water dissociation rate along the membrane surface. The results show that, at typically low arsenic concentrations in arsenic removal processes, water dissociation plays a key role in ion exchange resin regeneration, process whose intensity grows as the cell potential rises. Moreover, the non-homogeneous distribution of current produces uneven resin regeneration that depends on design and operating parameters. The ion exchange/electrodialysis model is applied to the IXED cell operating in recirculation mode by using individual tanks connected to each cell compartment to describe the experimental batch behavior where arsenic concentration varied from (initial) 13.3 ppm to (final concentration) less than 0.01, 8.9 and 21.3 ppm in DS, CC and AC compartments, respectively, at an operating current density of 8.4 A m−2 removing 99.9% of arsenic in DS compartment with 18.9% of total current efficiency. The model results of As(V) concentration decline in the solution flowing over the ion exchange bed agree very closely with experimental data; however, the As(V) concentration results in the resin-free compartments show deviations from experimental data during the process with 6 and 16% deviations at the end of the batch. These deviations are attributed to model assumptions, in particular to the effect of diverse, non-considered, As(V) ion species.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Hybrid ion exchange/electrodialysis Electrodeionization Mass transport Water dissociation Modelling Multi-ion transport Arsenic removal 

Abbreviations

ap

Specific area of the resin bed

C

Concentration

Cm,0

Capacity of the membrane

Daxi

Axial dispersion coefficient

Dk

Diffusion coefficient

dp

Diameter of the resin particles

Eeq

Equilibrium potential

F

Faraday constant

j

Current density vector

KA

Equilibrium constant for ion exchange reaction

kb

Backward rate constant for water dissociation reaction

k′b

Backward rate constant for enhanced water dissociation reaction

k′b0

Constant of enhanced water dissociation model

kf

Forward rate constant for water dissociation reaction

k′f

Forward rate constant for enhanced water dissociation reaction

k′f0

Constant of enhanced water dissociation model

km

Mass transfer coefficient

L

Height of the compartments of IXED cell

n

Unit normal vector

Nk

Molar flux vector of the species k

Q

Volumetric flow

R

Gas constant

R’s

Enhanced water dissociation rate

Re

Reynolds number

RIX

Mass-transfer-controlled ion exchange rate

Rlk

Formation of H+ or OH in recirculation tank

Rs

Water dissociation rate

Sc

Schmidt number

t

Time

T

Temperature

u

Velocity vector

ui

Interstitial velocity vector

um,k

Ionic mobility of species k

uo

Interstitial velocity

us

Superficial velocity

uavg

Average velocity

VT

Volume of recirculation tank

W

Width of the system formed by AC, CC and DS compartments and two anion exchange membranes

w

Width of compartments (distance between membranes)

x, y, z

Cartesian coordinates

zk

Charge on species k

Greek letters

α

Symmetry factor

β

Fraction of resin specific area for ion exchange

ε

Void fraction of the resin bed

σ

Electric conductivity

φ

Electric potential

Subscripts

avg

Average

eff

Effective property

i

Conditions at the interface

in

Conditions at the inlet

k

Referring to the component k

R

Referring to the effluent of IXED cell

T

Referring to the recirculation tank

Superscripts

AC

Compartment on the anode side

CC

Compartment on the cathode side

DS

Dilute solution compartment

l

Referring to the compartment, l = DS, CC or AC

res

Referring to the resin

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigation e Innovation Tecnológica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Project No. UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IN 114315. A. Ortega is grateful to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for the PhD fellowship No. 290102 Granted.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores CuautitlánUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCuautitlán IzcalliMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de QuímicaUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana-IztapalapaMexico CityMexico

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