Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 597–610 | Cite as

Modelling the transport of ions and electrochemical regeneration of the resin in a hybrid ion exchange/electrodialysis process for As(V) removal

  • E. P. Rivero
  • A. Ortega
  • M. R. Cruz-Díaz
  • I. González
Research Article


This paper presents the 2D modeling of a laboratory scale ion exchange/electrodialysis (IXED) flow cell for removal of As(V) ions from water. The cell consists of a central compartment (DS) delimited by two anion membranes and packed with anion exchange resin, one compartment on each side of the central compartment (CC and AC compartment) lined with a cation exchange membrane and a rinse compartment at each end of the cell. The developed model comprises: the anion exchange in the resin bed in a process controlled by the mass transport rate; the ion transport in the solutions of resin-free compartments, in the membranes and resin, based on Nernst–Planck equation; and enhanced water dissociation at the anion membrane/solution interface. The obtained results show the potential profiles, Donnan potential, concentration polarization and the contribution of each mechanism (diffusion and migration) to ion transport rate as well as the effect of the potential difference on water dissociation rate along the membrane surface. The results show that, at typically low arsenic concentrations in arsenic removal processes, water dissociation plays a key role in ion exchange resin regeneration, process whose intensity grows as the cell potential rises. Moreover, the non-homogeneous distribution of current produces uneven resin regeneration that depends on design and operating parameters. The ion exchange/electrodialysis model is applied to the IXED cell operating in recirculation mode by using individual tanks connected to each cell compartment to describe the experimental batch behavior where arsenic concentration varied from (initial) 13.3 ppm to (final concentration) less than 0.01, 8.9 and 21.3 ppm in DS, CC and AC compartments, respectively, at an operating current density of 8.4 A m−2 removing 99.9% of arsenic in DS compartment with 18.9% of total current efficiency. The model results of As(V) concentration decline in the solution flowing over the ion exchange bed agree very closely with experimental data; however, the As(V) concentration results in the resin-free compartments show deviations from experimental data during the process with 6 and 16% deviations at the end of the batch. These deviations are attributed to model assumptions, in particular to the effect of diverse, non-considered, As(V) ion species.

Graphical Abstract


Hybrid ion exchange/electrodialysis Electrodeionization Mass transport Water dissociation Modelling Multi-ion transport Arsenic removal 



Specific area of the resin bed




Capacity of the membrane


Axial dispersion coefficient


Diffusion coefficient


Diameter of the resin particles


Equilibrium potential


Faraday constant


Current density vector


Equilibrium constant for ion exchange reaction


Backward rate constant for water dissociation reaction


Backward rate constant for enhanced water dissociation reaction


Constant of enhanced water dissociation model


Forward rate constant for water dissociation reaction


Forward rate constant for enhanced water dissociation reaction


Constant of enhanced water dissociation model


Mass transfer coefficient


Height of the compartments of IXED cell


Unit normal vector


Molar flux vector of the species k


Volumetric flow


Gas constant


Enhanced water dissociation rate


Reynolds number


Mass-transfer-controlled ion exchange rate


Formation of H+ or OH in recirculation tank


Water dissociation rate


Schmidt number






Velocity vector


Interstitial velocity vector


Ionic mobility of species k


Interstitial velocity


Superficial velocity


Average velocity


Volume of recirculation tank


Width of the system formed by AC, CC and DS compartments and two anion exchange membranes


Width of compartments (distance between membranes)

x, y, z

Cartesian coordinates


Charge on species k

Greek letters


Symmetry factor


Fraction of resin specific area for ion exchange


Void fraction of the resin bed


Electric conductivity


Electric potential





Effective property


Conditions at the interface


Conditions at the inlet


Referring to the component k


Referring to the effluent of IXED cell


Referring to the recirculation tank



Compartment on the anode side


Compartment on the cathode side


Dilute solution compartment


Referring to the compartment, l = DS, CC or AC


Referring to the resin



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigation e Innovation Tecnológica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Project No. UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IN 114315. A. Ortega is grateful to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) for the PhD fellowship No. 290102 Granted.


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (1993) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, FranceGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ravenscroft P (2007) Predicting the global extent of arsenic pollution of groundwater and its potential impact on human health. UNICEF Report, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singh R, Singh S, Parihar P, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2015) Arsenic contamination, consequences and remediation techniques: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 112:247–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strathmann H (2010) Electrodialysis, a mature technology with a multitude of new applications. Desalination 264:268–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spoor PB, Grabovska L, Koene L, Janssen LJJ, Ter Veen WR (2002) Pilot scale deionisation of a galvanic nickel solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis system. Chem Eng J 89:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spoor PB, Koene L, ter Veen WR, Janssen LJJ (2002) Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution. Chem Eng J 85:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dzyazko YS (2006) Purification of a diluted solution containing nickel using electrodeionization. Desalination 198:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bergmann MEH, Iourtchouk T, Rittel A, Zuleeg H (2009) Feasibility studies of discontinuous electro-regeneration processes in environmentally-friendly plating for chromate separation from a binary system. Electrochim Acta 54:2417–2424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meyer N, Parker WJ, Van Geel PJ, Adiga M (2005) Development of an electrodeionization process for removal of nitrate from drinking water part 2: multi-species testing. Desalination 175:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meyer N, Parker WJ, Van Geel PJ, Adiga M (2005) Development of an electrodeionization process for removal of nitrate from drinking water part 1: single-species testing. Desalination 175:153–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spiegel EF, Thompson PM, Helden DJ, Doan HV, Gaspar DJ, Zanapalidou H (1999) Investigation of an electrodeionization system for the removal of low concentrations of ammonium ions. Desalination 123:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arar Ö, Yüksel Ü, Kabay N, Yüksel M (2013) Application of electrodeionization (EDI) for removal of boron and silica from reverse osmosis (RO) permeate of geothermal water. Desalination 310:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arar Ö, Yüksel Ü, Kabay N, Yüksel M (2014) Various applications of electrodeionization (EDI) method for water treatment: a short review. Desalination 342:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurup AS, Ho T, Hestekin JA (2009) Simulation and optimal design of electrodeionization process: separation of multicomponent electrolyte solution. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:9268–9277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Verbeek HM, First L, Neumeister H (1998) Digital simulation of an electrodeionization process. Comput Chem Eng 22:2–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grabowski A, Zhang G, Strathmann H, Eigenberger G (2006) The production of high purity water by continuous electrodeionization with bipolar membranes: influence of the anion-exchange membrane permselectivity. J Membr Sci 281:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Spoor PB, Koene L, Janssen LJJ (2002) Potential and concentration gradients in a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis cell. J Appl Electrochem 32:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee D, Lee JY, Kim Y, Moon SH (2017) Investigation of the performance determinants in the treatment of arsenic-contaminated water by continuous electrodeionization. Sep Purif Technol 179:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ortega A, Oliva I, Contreras KE, González I, Cruz Díaz MR, Rivero EP (2017) Arsenic removal from water by hybridelectro regenerated anion exchange resin/electrodialysis process. Sep Purif Technol 184:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mahmoud A, Muhr L, Vasiluk S, Aleynikoff A, Lapicque F (2003) Investigation of transport phenomena in a hybrid ion exchange-electrodialysis system for the removal of copper ions. J Appl Electrochem 33:875–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lu J, Wang YX, Zhu J (2010) Numerical simulation of the electrodeionization (EDI) process accounting for water dissociation. Electrochim Acta 55:2673–2686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lu J, Wang YX, Lu YY, Wang GL, Kong L, Zhu J (2010) Numerical simulation of the electrodeionization (EDI) process for producing ultrapure water. Electrochim Acta 55:7188–7198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lu J, Ma XY, Wang YX (2016) Numerical simulation of the electrodeionization (EDI) process with layered resin bed for deeply separating salt ions. Desalin Water Treat 57:10546–10559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Danielssona C-O, Dahlkild A, Velin A, Behm M (2009) A model for the enhanced water dissociation on monopolar membranes. Electrochim Acta 54:2983–2991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chowdiah VN, Foutch GL, Lee GC (2003) Binary liquid-phase mass transport in mixed-bed ion exchange at low solute concentration. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:1485–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bachet M, Jauberty L, De Windt L, Tevissen E, De Dieuleveult C, Schneider H (2014) Comparison of mass transfer coefficient approach and Nernst–Planck formulation in the reactive transport modeling of Co, Ni, and Ag removal by mixed-bed ion-exchange resins. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:11096 – 11106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Borba CE, Silva EA, Spohr S, Santos GHF, Guirardello R (2011) Application of the mass action law to describe ion exchange equilibrium in a fixed-bed column. Chem Eng J 172:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tanaka Y (2011) Ion-exchange membrane electrodialysis for saline water desalination and its application to seawater concentration. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:7494–7503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tanaka Y (2010) Water dissociation reaction generated in an ion exchange membrane. J Membr Sci 350:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tjaden B, Cooper SJ, Brett DJL, Kramer D, Shearing PR (2016) On the origin and application of the Bruggeman correlation for analysing transport phenomena in electrochemical systems. Curr Opin Chem Eng 12:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Velizarov S (2013) Transport of arsenate through anion-exchange membranes in Donnan dialysis. J Membr Sci 425–426:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Newman J, Thomas-Alyea KE (2004) Electrochemical systems, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Helfferich F (1962) Ion-exchange. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores CuautitlánUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCuautitlán IzcalliMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de QuímicaUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana-IztapalapaMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations