Effect of supercapacitors directly hybridized with PEMFC on the component contribution and the performance of the system
Hybridization of a fuel cell (FC) with energy storage systems such as supercapacitors (SC) or batteries can make the fuel cell withstand the sudden fluctuations of the current. Moreover, direct hybridization of a FC with SCs (i.e. without power converters) has further proved out to be a better solution than the indirect mode (i.e. with power converters), in addition without inducing further ageing of the cell in non-steady operations. The present investigation was aimed at comparing the performance of the system in terms of yield and the component contributions of the fuel cell and the supercapacitor in power conversion on increasing the capacity of energy storage. A single 100 cm2 cell was directly hybridized to one or three 3000 F SCs in standard fuel cell dynamic load cycling operation, simulating the energy demand in urban transport with current varying in the range 0–100 A. Upon comparing the hydrogen supply for the two configurations (1 or 3 SC), increasing the SC number decreased the hydrogen amount required in a cycle by approximately 5%. This also enhanced the yield of the fuel cell and the hybrid source by 10 and 16% respectively. Moreover, increasing the SCs capacity reduces the power supplied by the FC in periods with high energy demand in cycling tests.
KeywordsDirect hybridization PEMFC Supercapacitors Hydrogen consumption Fuel cell dynamic load cycling
This work was supported partly by the French PIA project «Lorraine Université d’Excellence», reference ANR-15-IDEX-04-LUE for the PhD Grant allocated to D. Arora.
- 5.Yuan XZ, Wang H (2008) PEM fuel cell fundamentals. In: Zhang J (ed) PEM fuel cell electrocatalysts and catalyst layers. Springer, London, pp 1–87Google Scholar
- 6.Ramani VK, Cooper K, Fenton JM, Kunz HR (2017) Polymer electrolyte fuel cells. In: Breitkopf C, Swider-Lyons K (eds) Springer handbook of electrochemical energy. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 7.Wahdame B, Girardot L, Hissel D, Harel F, Francois X, Candusso D et al (2008) Impact of power converter current ripple on the durability of a fuel cell stack. In: Proceedings of IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics, pp 1495–1500Google Scholar
- 14.Wu B, Yufit V, Campbell J, Offer GJ, Martinez-Botas RF, Brandon NP (2013) Simulated and experimental validation of a fuel cell-supercapacitor passive hybrid system for electric vehicles. In: Proceedings of IET hybrid and electric vehicles conference 2013 (HEVC 2013), pp 1–6Google Scholar
- 18.Tsotridis G, Pilenga A, De Marco G, Malkow T (2015) EU harmonised test protocols for PEMFC MEA testing in single cell configuration for automotive applications. European Commission, Joint Research Centre Publications Office, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar