Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 199–207 | Cite as

Pt nanoparticles synthesized with new surfactants: improvement in C1–C3 alcohol oxidation catalytic activity

Research Article


Platinum electrocatalysts were prepared using PtCl4 as a starting material and 1-decylamine, N,N-dimethyldecylamine, 1-dodecylamine, N,N-dimethyldodecylamine, 1-hexadecylamine, and 1-octadecylamine as surfactants. These surfactants were used for the first time in this synthesis to determine whether the primary and/or tertiary structure and/or chain length of the surfactants, affects the size and/or activity of the catalysts in C1–C3 alcohol electro-oxidation reactions. Electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) indicated that the highest electrocatalytic performance was observed for the Pt nanocatalysts that were stabilized by N,N-dimethyldecylamine, and this has a tertiary amine structure with a short chain length (R = C10H21). The high performance may be due to the high electrochemical surface area, Pt(0)/Pt(IV) ratio, %Pt utility, and roughness factor (R f). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the parameters that affect the catalytic activities.


Alcohol oxidation Direct alcohol fuel cells Platinum nanoparticles Electrocatalysts Carbon support 



The authors gratefully acknowledge TÜBİTAK (Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu, Grant 111T162) for financial support and the Central Laboratory of the Middle East Technical University for acquiring XPS, TEM, and elemental analyses. The authors also thank Dr. Michael W. Pitcher for editing and proofreading this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Costamagna P, Srinivasan S (2001) J Power Sources 102:242–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ren X, Zelenay P, Thomas A, Davey J, Gottesfeld S (2000) J Power Sources 86:111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wasmus S, Kuver A (2000) Electrochim Acta 45:4319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reddington E, Sapienza A, Gurau B, Viswanathan R, Sarangapani S, Smotkin ES, Mallouk TE (1998) Science 280:1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sumodjo PTA, Silva EJ, Rabochai T (1989) J Electroanal Chem 271:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kabbabi A, Faure R, Durand R, Beden B, Hahn F, Leger J-M, Lamy C (1998) J Electroanal Chem 444:41–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rodrigues IA, De Souza JPI, Pastor E, Nart FC (1997) Langmuir 13:6829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Delime F, Leger J-M, Lamy C (1999) J Appl Electrochem 29:1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Datta J, Sıngh S, Das S, Bandyopadhyay NR (2009) Bull Mater Sci 32(6):643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhou WJ, Song SQ, Li WZ, Zhou ZH, Sun GQ, Xin Q, Douvartzides S, Tsiakaras P (2005) J Power Sources 140:50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lamy C, Belgsir EM, Leger JM (2001) J Appl Electrochem 31:799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qi Z, Kaufman A (2002) J Power Sources 112:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cao D, Bergens SH (2003) J Power Sources 124:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qi Z, Hollett M, Attia A, Kaufman A (2002) Electrochem Solid-State Lett 5:A129–A130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cao D, Bergens SH (2003) J Power Sources 124:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wei ZD, Li L, Luo YH, Yan C, Sun CX, Yin GZ, Shen PK (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:26055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rodrigues IA, De Souza JPI, Pastor E, Nart FC (1997) Langmuir 13:6829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Şen F, Gökağaç G (2007) J Phys Chem C 111:1467–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu Z, Ling XY, Su X, Lee JY (2004) J Phys Chem B 108:8234–8240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klug H, Alexander L (1954) X-ray diffraction procedures, 1st edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kawasaki H, Uota M, Yoshimura T, Fujikawa D, Sakai G, Kijima T (2006) J Colloid Interface Sci 300:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Prabhuram J, Wang X, Hui CL, Hsing I-M (2003) J Phys Chem B 107:11057–11064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Şen F, Gökağaç G (2007) J Phys Chem C 111:1467–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yonezawa T, Toshima N, Wakai C, Nakahara M, Nishinaka M, Tominaga T, Nomura H (2000) Colloids Surf A 169:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liang L, Sun G, Sun S, Liu J, Tang S, Li H, Zhou B, Xin Q (2005) Electrochim Acta 50:5384–5389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sen F, Sen S, Gokagac G (2011) Phys Chem Chem Phys 13(4):1676–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu Z, Yu C, Russakova IA, Huang D, Strasser P (2008) Top Catal 49:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huang J, Yang H, Huang Q, Tang Y, Lu T, Akins DL (2004) J Electrochem Soc 151:A1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kennedy BJ, Hamnett A (1990) J Electroanal Chem 283:271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sen F, Gokagac G (2007) J Phys Chem C 111(15):5715–5720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deivaraj TC, Chen WX, Lee JY (2003) J Mater Chem 13:2555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watanabe M, Uchida M, Motoo S (1987) J Electroanal Chem 229:395–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goodenough JB, Hamnett A, Kennedy BJ, Manoharan R, Weeks SA (1988) J Electroanal Chem 240:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gökağaç G, Kennedy BJ, Cashion JD, Brown LJ (1993) J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 89:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Peuckert M (1984) Electrochim Acta 29(10):1315–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peuckert M, Bonzel HP (1984) Surf Sci 145(1):239–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu ZL, Lee JY, Han M, Chen WX, Gan LM (2002) J Mater Chem 12:2453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang ZB, Yin GP, Shi PF (2005) J Electrochem Soc 152:A2406–A2412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sen Gupta S, Datta J (2005) J Chem Sci 117:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim YT, Mitani T (2006) J Catal 238:394–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kadirgan F, Beyhan S, Atilan T (2009) Int J Hydrogen Energy 34(10):4312–4320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Watanabe M, Uchida M, Motoo S (1987) J Electroanal Chem 229:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Otomo J, Li X, Kobayashi T, Wen C-J, Nagamoto H, Takahashi H (2004) J Electroanal Chem 573:99Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ozturk Z, Sen F, Sen S, Gokagac G (2012) J Mater Sci 47:8134–8144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ertan S, Sen F, Sen S, Gokagac G (2012) J Nanopart Res 14:922–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sen F, Gokagac G, Sen S (2013) J Nanopart Res. doi: 10.1007/s11051-013-1979-5 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Biochemistry DepartmentDumlupinar UniversityKutahyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations