Advertisement

Journal of Applied Electrochemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 1225–1237 | Cite as

Physico-chemical effects on clay due to electromigration using stainless steel electrodes

  • C. Liaki
  • C. D. F. Rogers
  • D. I. Boardman
Original Paper

Abstract

The physico-chemical changes in clay soils due to the application of electrokinetics are difficult to predict with accuracy because of the very wide range of parameters interacting. The effects of the application of an electrical gradient across controlled specimens of a pure form of kaolinite using stainless steel electrodes and a deionised water feed to the electrodes, to mimic electrokinetic stabilisation without the stabiliser added, are reported. The specimens in which electrical and chemical changes were induced over different time periods (3, 7, 14 and 28 days) were subsequently tested for Atterberg limits, undrained shear strength, water content, pH, conductivity, Fe concentration and zeta potential. Changes in strength and plasticity indices were attributed to electrolysis, electro-osmosis, electrode degradation, clay mineral dissolution, ion movement due to electromigration, cation exchange reactions and precipitation of reaction products.

Keywords

Electrokinetic Electromigration Electro-osmosis Kaolinite Steel electrodes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research project was funded jointly by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and University of Birmingham via a Post-Graduate Teaching Assistant studentship, this support being gratefully acknowledged. The research and technical staff of the School of Civil Engineering are thanked for their assistance.

References

  1. 1.
    Casagrande L (1949) Géotechnique 1(3):159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mohamedelhassan E, Shang JQ (2002) Ground Improv 5:1–8Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jones CJFP, Glendinning S, Shim GSC (2002) Soil consolidation using electrically conductive geosynthetics. In: 7th International conference on geosynthetics, Nice, FranceGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alshawabkeh AN, Sheahan TC (2002) In: Transportation Research Record No 1787, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 53–60Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ozkan S, Gale RJ, Seals RK (1999) Ground Improv 3:135–144Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamed JT, Bhadra A (1997) J Hazard Mater 55:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vane LM, Zang GM (1997) J Hazard Mater 55:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alshawabkeh AN, Acar YB (1992) J Env Sci Health Part A 27(7):1835–1861Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liaki C, Rogers CDF, Boardman DI (2008) J Env Sci Health Part A 43(8):810–822Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gray DH (1970) Géotechnique 20(1):81–93Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mitchell JK (1993) Fundamentals of soil behavior, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Casagrande L (1983) J Boston Soc Civ Eng 69(2)255–302Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mitchell JK (1991) Géotechnique 41(3):299–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shang JQ, Dunlap WA (1996) J Geotech Eng 122(4):274–280Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yeung AT (2006) Env Eng Sci 23(1):202–224Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    British Standards Institution (1990) Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes: BS1377. HMSO, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liaki C (2006) Physicochemical study of electrokinetically treated clay using carbon and steel electrodes. PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rogers CDF, Liaki C, Boardman DI (2003) Advances in the engineering of lime stabilised clay soils. CD-ROM. Keynote Paper, International conference on problematic soils, Nottingham, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boardman DI, Glendinning S, Rogers CDF (2001) Géotechnique 51(6):533–543Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boardman DI, Glendinning S, Rogers CDF (2004) Géotechnique 54(7):467–486Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Loughnan FC (1969) Chemical weathering of silicate minerals. American Elsevier Publishing Co. Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Boardman DI (1999) Lime stabilisation: clay–metal–lime interactions. PhD Thesis, Loughborough University, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BirminghamEdgbaston, BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations