Effects of minor additions of ruthenium on the passivation of duplex stainless-steel corrosion in concentrated hydrochloric acid solutions

  • El-Sayed M. Sherif
  • J. H. Potgieter
  • J. D. Comins
  • L. Cornish
  • P. A. Olubambi
  • C. N. Machio
Original Paper


The effects of minor additions of ruthenium (0.14%, 0.22%, and 0.28%) on the passivation of duplex stainless-steel (DSS, Fe–22%Cr–9%Ni–3%Mo) corrosion in 2 M HCl solutions have been studied using open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic cyclic polarization, potentiostatic current–time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight loss measurements. OCP measurements showed an increased shift in the corrosion potential to more positive values with increasing Ru content. Polarization and EIS experiments indicated that the presence of Ru and the increase of its content decrease the corrosion rate, critical and passive current density, and polarization resistance. Moreover, it shifts the corrosion and pitting potentials to more positive values. Current–time measurements at −100, −50, and 50 mV versus Ag/AgCl also confirmed that the severity of pitting corrosion decreases with an increasing Ru content. Weight-loss time data showed good agreement with the electrochemical measurements.


Concentrated hydrochloric acid solutions Corrosion passivation Duplex stainless-steel Ruthenium additions 



This research work was supported by the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, who also awarded a Postdoctoral Fellowship to EMS.


  1. 1.
    Potgieter JH, Olubambi PA, Cornish L, Machio CN, Sherif EM (2008) Corros Sci 50:2572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Varga K, Baradlai P, Barnard WO, Myburg G, Halmos P, Potgieter JH (1997) Electrochim Acta 42:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Potgieter JH (1991) J Appl Electrochem 21:471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Potgieter JH, Heyns AM, Skinner W (1990) J Appl Electrochem 20:711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baradlai P, Potgieter JH, Barnard WO, Tomcsanyi L, Varga K (1995) Mater Sci Forum 185–188:759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Myburg G, Varga K, Barnard WO, Baradlai P, Tomcsânyi L, Potgieter JH, Louw CW, Van Staden MJ (1998) Appl Surf Sci 136:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Potgieter JH, Barnard WO, Myburg G, Varga K, Baradlai P, Tomcsânyi L (1996) J Appl Electrochem 26:1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Potgieter JH, Skinner W, Heyns AM (1993) J Appl Electrochem 23:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tjong SC (1990) Appl Surf Sci 44:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolff IM, Iorio LE, Rumpf T, Scheers PVT, Potgieter JH (1998) Mater Sci Eng A 241:264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Potgieter JH, Ellis P, Van Bennekom A (1995) ISIJ Int 35:197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2006) Corros Sci 48:4065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sherif EM (2006) Appl Surf Sci 252:8615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2006) Electrochim Acta 51:4665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sherif EM, El Shamy AM, Ramla MM, El-Nazhawy AOH (2007) Mater Chem Phys 102:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sherif EM, Erasmus RM, Comins JD (2009) J Appl Electrochem 39:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2005) J Electrochem Soc 152:B428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2006) Electrochim Acta 51:6556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Staden MJ, Roux JP (1990) Appl Surf Sci 44:263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tjong SC, Barnard WO, Malherbe JB (1992) J Mater Sci 27:1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Szklarska-Smialowska Z (1986) Pitting corrosion of metals. NACE, HustonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park SM, Yoo JS (2003) J Anal Chem 75:455AGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Macdonald JR (1987) Impedance spectroscopy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sherif EM, Erasmus RM, Comins JD (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 309:470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2006) Electrochim Acta 51:1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sherif EM, Park SM (2005) J Electrochem Soc 152:B205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sherif EM, Erasmus RM, Comins JD (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 311:144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherif EM, Erasmus RM, Comins JD (2007) J Colloid Interface Sci 306:96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mansfeld F, Lin S, Kim S, Shih H (2007) Corros Sci 27:997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Larabi L, Harek Y, Benali O, Ghalem S (2005) Prog Org Coat 54:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Popova A, Sokolova E, Raicheva S, Christov M (2003) Corros Sci 45:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ma H, Chen S, Niu L, Zhao S, Li S, Li D (2002) J Appl Electrochem 32:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sherif EM, Erasmus RM, Comins JD (2008) Corros Sci 50:3439CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • El-Sayed M. Sherif
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • J. H. Potgieter
    • 2
  • J. D. Comins
    • 1
  • L. Cornish
    • 3
  • P. A. Olubambi
    • 3
  • C. N. Machio
    • 3
  1. 1.DST/NRF Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of PhysicsUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Chemistry and Materials Division, School of Biology, Chemistry and Health SciencesManchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  3. 3.DST/NRF Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  4. 4.Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of EngineeringKing Saud UniversityAl-RiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Physical Chemistry DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations