Effects of current density on the structure of Ni and Ni–Mn electrodeposits
Grain size and texture of Ni electrodeposited from sulfamate baths depend greatly on current density. Increasing grain size is observed with increasing current density and the deposit texture changes from 〈110〉 at current densities lower than 5 mA cm−2 to 〈100〉 for higher current densities. Co-deposition of Mn modifies the deposit structure by favoring the growth of the 〈110〉 texture and decreasing the average grain size even as the current density increases. While the average Mn film content increases with increasing current density, local Mn concentrations are a more complex function of deposition parameters, as indicated by atom probe tomography measurements. In both direct-current plated and pulse plated films, large variations on a nanometer scale in local Mn concentration are observed.
Keywordsatom probe tomography electrodeposition microstructure Ni Ni–Mn sulfamate bath texture
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Joshua Funamura, Andy Gardea, and Michael Rye are thanked for support in sample preparation and characterization. EAM specially thanks the staff at Imago Scientific Instruments Co., and the Northwestern University Center for Atom Probe Tomography. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
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