Capturing the Minds of a Lost and Lonely Generation

  • Frida Tungaraza
  • Margaret Sutherland


UNICEF states that in 88 countries studied ‘more than 13 million children currently under the age of 15 have lost both parents to Aids, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa’ (UNICEF 2002). The impact of this Aids pandemic cannot be overstated. Indeed the long-term impact of such statistics is scarcely imaginable and has not been experienced in the world to date. Sustainable, indigenous technology may be a way of providing a meaningful educational experience for such marginalised young people. However the concept of sustainable, indigenous technology is not always clearly defined. This paper seeks to discuss this concept in relation to education and in particular considers the impact of the HIV/AIDs pandemic in Tanzania. The paper will outline:
  • The impact of the Aids pandemic on children under 15

  • The difficulties in engaging marginalised youth in education

  • Sustainable indigenous technology education approaches

  • How sustainable indigenous technology education can reengage marginalised youth in the education process


disengagement sustainable technology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackers, J., Migoli, J., Nzomo, J. 2001Identifying and addressing the causes of declining participation rates in Kenyan primary schools. InternationalJournal of Educational Development21361374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Africa Church Information Service: 2001, NGOs Seek Long-term Settlement of Street Children on line accessed 29 January 2003.
  3. American Youth Policy Forum: 2000, High Schools of the Millennium: Report of the Workgroup.Google Scholar
  4. Brokensha, D., Warren, D. M., Werner, O. 1980Indigenous Knowledge Systems and DevelopmentUniversity Press of AmericaLanhamGoogle Scholar
  5. Bush, C. G. 1983Woman and the Assessment of Technology: To Think, to be, to UnthinkRothschild, J. eds. Machina ExDea PergamonNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Cidosa, R.: 2001, Children: Interview with street children in Dar es Salaam MS Tanzania on line accessed 29 January 2003.
  7. Cooksey and Reidmiller: 1997, ‘Tanzanian Education in the Nineties: Beyond the diploma disease’, Assessment Education 4(1).Google Scholar
  8. Crewe, , Harrison,  1999Whose Development? An Ethnography of AidZed BooksLondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Department for International Development1999Learning Opportunities for All – A policy Framework for EducationDFIDLondonGoogle Scholar
  10. de Vries, M. J.: 2003, The Nature of Technological Knowledge: Philosophical Reflections and Educational Consequences. In: Pupils Attitudes Towards Technology – 13 International Conference on Design and Technology Educational Research Conference Proceedings. University of Glasgow, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  11. Elshof, L.: 2003, Teacher’s Interpretations of Sustainable Development. In: Pupils Attitudes Towards Technology – 13 International Conference on Design and Technology Educational Research Conference Proceedings. University of Glasgow, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  12. Hampshire County Council Hampshire County Youth Service Strategic Development Plan: 2000–2003. on line accessed 2 April 2003.
  13. Hobart, M. 1993An Anthropological Critique of Development: The Growth of IgnoranceRoutledgeLondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Ibrahim, M. 2002Providing Education For Out-of-School Youth in BangladeshCommonwealth SecretariatLondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Irwin, R.: 2003, The Technology Environment: Subjectivity, Language and Machine. In: Pupils Attitudes Towards Technology – 13 International Conference on Design and Technology Educational Research Conference Proceedings University of Glasgow, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  16. Kaya, H. O. & Maleka, S.: 1996, ‘The Problem of Eco-Development and the Importance of Indigenous Knowledge in an Environmentally Sound Rural Development Strategy’, Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 10(1).Google Scholar
  17. Kline, S. J. 2003What is TechnologyScharrf, R.C.Dusek, V. eds. Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition, An AnthologyBlackwell PublishingUKGoogle Scholar
  18. Kroma, S.: 2003, Popularising science education in developing countries through indigenous knowledge on line–3/articles/kroma.html accessed 3 July.
  19. May, S., Aikman, S. 2003Indigenous Education: Addressing Current Issues and DevelopmentsComparative Education39139145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mkombozi Review: 2000, Mkombozi on line accessed 29 January 2003.
  21. Mosha, H. J. 1988A Reassessment of the Indicators of Primary Education Quality in Developing Countries: Emerging Evidence from TanzaniaInternational Review of EducationXXXIV1745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mushi, P. A. K., Malekela, G. A., Bhalalusesa, E. P. 2002Moving Beyond the Classroom: Expanding Learning Opportunities for Marginalised Populations in TanzaniaThe Forum for African Women EducationalistsKenyaGoogle Scholar
  23. Ntsoane, O. 2002Indigenous Knowledge Systema and their Economic Potential in South AfricaSavage, M.Naidoo, P. eds. Popularisation of Science and Technology Education: Some Case Studies from AfricaCommonwealth SecretariatLondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Oxfam Cool Planet on line accessed 24 March 03.Google Scholar
  25. Pan African News Agency: 2000, Ray of Hope as Slum Dwellers Embark on Sandal Project on line accessed 29 January 2003.
  26. Pinnock, H. 2002ACCESS in Ethiopia: A model for NGO/government collaboration?ActionAid: Education Action161214Google Scholar
  27. Richards, P. 1985Indigenous Agricultural RevolutionAllen and UnwinLondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Riley, K. A., Rustique-Forrester, E. 2002Working with Disaffected StudentsPaul Chapman PublishingLondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Scales, P. C.: 1996, Boxed in and Bored: How Middle Schools Continue to Fail Young Adolescents, Search Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Tanzania Development Research Group: 1993, Parent’s Attitudes and Strategies Towards Education in Rural Tanzania – Final Report, Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
  31. United Nations1989UN Convention on the Rights of the ChildUNNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation: 1990, World Conference on Education for All Jomtein, Thailand.Google Scholar
  33. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation Towards a Deeper Reflection on Sustainable Development on line accessed 13 March 2003.
  34. United Nations Children’s Fund1999Children Orphaned by AIDSUNICEFNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation2000Education for All: The 2000 AssessmentUNESCONew YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. United Nations Children’s Fund2002The State of the World’s Children 2002UNICEFNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. United Nations Aids2002Report on the Global HIV/AIDs Epidemic 2002UNAIDSGenevaGoogle Scholar
  38. Warren, D. M., Slikkerveer, L. J., Brokensha, D. 1995The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge SystemsIntermediate Technology PublicationsLondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Educational StudiesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations