International Ophthalmology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 121–125 | Cite as

Influence of indoor and outdoor activities on progression of myopia during puberty

  • Veysi Öner
  • Asker Bulut
  • Yavuz Oruç
  • Gökhan Özgür
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether time spent on indoor and outdoor activities or the other possible risk factors including age, gender, parental history, and initial refraction was associated with progression of myopia, during puberty. Fifty eyes of 50 myopic children aged 9–14 years were enrolled in the study. The parents were interviewed to determine the amounts of time in hours per day spent on reading and writing, using computer, watching TV, and outdoor activities (i.e., sports, games, or being outdoor with no activities) on an average day. The annual myopia progression rate (diopters per year) was calculated for each subject and was used in the statistical analyses. The mean initial age of the subjects was 10.9 ± 1.5 (ranging from 9 to 14) years. The mean follow-up period was 33.3 ± 10.3 (ranging from 17 to 55) months. There was a significant increase in the mean myopia value of the subjects after follow-up period (p < 0.001). The mean daily time spent on reading and writing and initial refraction value were independently associated with annual myopic progression rate. On the other hand, age, gender, parental myopia, and the mean daily times spent on computer use, watching TV, and outdoor activities had no correlations with annual myopia progression rate. The present study showed that myopia progression was associated with time spent on reading and writing and initial refraction value, during puberty. However, myopia progression was not associated with parental myopia, age, gender, and daily times spent on using computer, watching TV, and outdoor activities.


Myopia progression Reading and writing Computer use Watching TV Outdoor activities 


Compliance with ethical standards

None of the authors has conflict of interest with the submission. No financial support was received for this submission. All subjects and parents were informed about the study procedure and informed consents were obtained. The study was in accordance with the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Medical School.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veysi Öner
    • 1
  • Asker Bulut
    • 1
  • Yavuz Oruç
    • 1
  • Gökhan Özgür
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyRecep Tayyip Erdoğan University Medical School Education and Research HospitalRizeTurkey

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