International Ophthalmology

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 287–301 | Cite as

New concepts in the appraisal and management of birdshot retinochoroiditis, a global perspective

  • Marina Papadia
  • Carl P. HerbortJr.
Review Article


Birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC) is a relatively recently described entity. BRC uveitis is predominant in the posterior segment with dual, independent retinal, and choroidal inflammation. The disease has no known extra-ocular inflammation sites and yet features the strongest known HLA association: HLA-A29 is present in close to 100 % of cases. Aim in this mini-review was to readjust the appraisal of BRC in the light of a global approach including the full array of investigational procedures. Historical background and the genesis of the disease name were searched. Global disease description including both the retina and the choroid was given. Retinal involvement was clearly characterized, pointing toward the profuse leakage of retinal vessels of all sizes in early disease and widespread atrophy in under treated patients. The importance of exploration of choroidal disease, unavailable until the early 1990s before the advent of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was stressed, allowing early diagnosis of disease. Despite its proven importance to explore the choroid, ICGA is still sparsely used. Existing diagnostic criteria were found to be clearly inappropriate not allowing early diagnosis and are in need to be revised, taking into account both retinal and choroidal aspects of the disease, in order to make early diagnosis possible and hence allow proper management .


Birdshot retinochoroiditis Indocyanine green angiography Optical coherence tomography Visual field Early diagnosis of birdshot retinochoroiditis Clinical phenotype 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Retinal and Inflammatory Eye Disease, Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care (COS)Clinic MontchoisiLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Ospedale Padre Antero Micone GenovaGenovaItaly
  3. 3.University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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