International Ophthalmology

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 825–829 | Cite as

Ophthalmic complications among cases of head trauma in north-eastern Iran

  • Mohammad Reza Ehsaei
  • Mehrdad Heidari
  • Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani
  • Asieh Ehsaei
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of ocular complications in patients with head trauma admitted to the main trauma centre in north-eastern Iran. A total of 459 head-injured patients (36.56 ± 19.30 years of age) with at least one ocular manifestation were recruited. Each individual patient was examined by a neurosurgeon and an ophthalmologist to confirm the type of ocular complication. In addition, all patients were analysed for age, gender, and cause of head injury in addition to the ophthalmic and neurosurgical examinations. Of the 459 patients, 142 (31 %) were female and 317 (69 %) were male. The maximum rate of ocular complications was during the third decade of life and minimum during childhood and in the elderly (>71 years) population. The leading cause of head trauma was motor vehicle accidents, predominant in male adults aged 21–40 years. Ocular complications observed were classified into three major groups: soft-tissue injuries to the globe and adnexae (n = 434), orbital complications (n = 45) and neuro-ophthalmic complications (n = 152). In conclusion, our data provides a useful estimation of the rate and pattern of ocular complications among patients with head injuries seen in trauma centres in north-eastern Iran. Understanding the pattern of ocular complications helps us to design more appropriate preventive methods.


Head trauma Ocular complication Motor vehicle accident 



The authors have no financial or conflict of interests to disclose.


  1. 1.
    Purcell L (2007) Traumatic head injuries. In: Purcell L, Micheli L (eds) The adolescent athlete. Springer, New York, pp 61–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jennett B, Teasdale G, Galbraith S, Pickard J, Grant H, Braakman R, Avezaat C, Maas A, Minderhoud J, Vecht CJ, Heiden J, Small R, Caton W, Kurze T (1977) Severe head injuries in three countries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 40:291–298PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scruggs D, Scruggs R, Stukenborg G, Netland PA, Calland JF (2012) Ocular injuries in trauma patients: an analysis of 28,340 trauma admissions in the 2003–2007 national trauma data bank national sample program. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 73:1308–1312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geneva W (1997) Strategies for the prevention of blindness in national programmes. A primary health care approach, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 74–76Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hooper RS (1951) Orbital complications of head injury. Br J Surg 39:126–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kowal L (1992) Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 20:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Odebode TO, Ademola-Popoola DS, Ojo TA, Ayanniyi AA (2005) Ocular and visual complications of head injury. Eye (Lond) 19:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baker RS, Epstein AD (1991) Ocular motor abnormalities from head trauma. Surv Ophthalmol 35:245–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ehsaei MR, Zare E, Hushmandi F (2012) Epidemiologic evaluation of traumatic spinal injury. Neurosurg Q 22:141–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ehsaei M, Bahadorkhan G, Samini F, Kheradmand H (2008) Pediatric spine injuries after trauma: a review of 43 cases. MJIRI 22:86–92Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karamehmetoglu SS, Nas K, Karacan I, Sarac AJ, Koyuncu H, Ataoglu S, Erdogan F (1997) Traumatic spinal cord injuries in southeast turkey: an epidemiological study. Spinal Cord 35:531–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jennett B (1996) Epidemiology of head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60:362–369PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cantani A (1993) Epidemiology of ocular complications of childhood head trauma. Pediatr Emerg Care 9:67–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Reza Ehsaei
    • 1
  • Mehrdad Heidari
    • 1
  • Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani
    • 2
  • Asieh Ehsaei
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of New Sciences and Technology, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Refractive Errors Research Centre, School of Paramedical SciencesMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  4. 4.Department of Optometry, School of Paramedical SciencesMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations