Doxing Racists

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Camila Domonoske, “On the Internet, Everyone Knows ‘You’re Racist’: Twitter Account IDs Marchers,” The Two-Way. National Public Radio, 14 August 2017. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/08/14/543418271/on-the-internet-everyone-knows-you-re-a-racist-twitter-account-ids-marchers (Last accessed: 28 March 2017).

  2. 2.

    Donie O’Sullivan, “Twitter Users are Outing Charlottesville Demonstrators,” CNN. 15 August 2017. http://www.ktvn.com/story/36123640/unr-student-marches-in-charlottesville-white-nationalist-rally. (Last accessed 9 April 2017).

  3. 3.

    Adam Martin, “Anonymous Goes After the Pepper Spray Cop’s Personal Info,” The Atlantic 26 September 2011. https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2011/09/anonymous-goes-after-pepper-spray-cops-personal-info/337447/ (Last accessed: 20 May 2019).

  4. 4.

    Adrian Chen, “Unmasking Reddit’s Violentacrez: The Biggest Troll on the Web,” Gawker,12 October 2012. http://gawker.com/5950981/unmasking-reddits-violentacrez-the-biggest-troll-on-the-web (Last accessed: 25 June 2018).

  5. 5.

    Caitlin Dewey, “The Only Guide to Gamergate You Will Ever Need to Read,” The Intersect. The Washington Post. 14 October 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2014/10/14/the-only-guide-to-gamergate-you-will-ever-need-to-read/?noredirect=on (Last accessed 25 June 2018.)

  6. 6.

    David M. Douglas, “Doxing: A Conceptual Analysis,” The Ethics of Informational Technology 18 (2016), p. 199.

  7. 7.

    Mat Honan, “What is Doxing?”, Wired. 6 March 2014. https://www.wired.com/2014/03/doxing/ (Last accessed: 29 March 2018).

  8. 8.

    Laura Sydell, “Some are Troubled by Online Shaming of Charlottesville Rally Participants,” All Tech Considered. National Public Radio, 15 August 2017. https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/08/15/543566757/twitter-account-names-and-shames-far-right-activists-at-charlottesville (Last accessed 29 March 2018.)

  9. 9.

    Emma Grey Ellis, “Whatever Your Side, Doxing is a Perilous Form of Justice,” Wired. 17 August 2017. https://www.wired.com/story/doxing-charlottesville/ (Last accessed: 29 March 2018.)

  10. 10.

    David Brake, “Doxing is a Toxic Practice—No Matter Who is Targeted,” Media Policy Project Blog. The London School of Economics and Political Science, 18 August 2017. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/mediapolicyproject/2017/08/18/the-dangers-of-doxing-and-the-implications-for-media-regulation/ (Last accessed: 29 March 2018).

  11. 11.

    Decca Muldowney, “Info Wars: Inside the Left’s Online Efforts to Out White Supremacists,” ProPublica. (30 October 2017). https://www.propublica.org/article/inside-the-lefts-online-efforts-to-out-white-supremacists (Last accessed 7 November 2018).

  12. 12.

    Douglas, Doxing,” p. 199.

  13. 13.

    Ibid., p. 203.

  14. 14.

    Ibid., p. 207.

  15. 15.

    Hans Asenbaum, “Anonymity and Democracy: Absence as Presence in the Public Sphere,” American Political Science Review 112:3 (2018), pp. 459–72.

  16. 16.

    Alfred Moore, “Anonymity, Pseudonymity, and Deliberation: Why not Everything Should be Connected,” The Journal of Political Philosophy 26:2 (2018), p. 169.

  17. 17.

    G. T. Marx, “What’s in a Name? Some Reflections on the Sociology of Anonymity,” The Information Society 15:2 (1999), pp. 99–112.

  18. 18.

    Some regard pseudonymity as a lesser subtype of anonymity. See, for example, Carissa Veliz, “Online Masquerade: Redesigning the Internet for Free Speech Through the Use of Pseudonyms,” Journal of Applied Philosophy (First published: 12 September 2018), p. 9. https://doi.org/10.1111/japp.12342.

  19. 19.

    See NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449 (1958).

  20. 20.

    See Talley v. California, 362 U.S. 60 (1960).

  21. 21.

    April Glaser, “White Supremacists Still Have a Safe Space Online,” The Industry, Slate (9 October 2018). https://slate.com/technology/2018/10/discord-safe-space-white-supremacists.html (Last accessed: 9 October 2018).

  22. 22.

    Anita L. Allen, Unpopular Privacy: What Must We Hide? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), p. 161.

  23. 23.

    Charles Fried, “Privacy,” The Yale Law Journal 77:3 (1968), pp. 482–3; Arthur R. Miller, Assault on Privacy (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1971) p. 25; William A. Parent, “Privacy, Morality, and the Law,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 12 (1983), p. 269; Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967) p. 5.

  24. 24.

    Peter Snyder, Periwinkle Doerfler, Chris Kanich, and Damon McCoy, “Fifteen Minutes of Unwanted Fame: Detecting and Characterizing Doxing,” in Proceedings of IMC ’17 (New York: Association of Computing Machinery, 2017).

  25. 25.

    Daniel J. Solove, Understanding Privacy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008), p. 111.

  26. 26.

    Allen, Unpopular Privacy, p. 136.

  27. 27.

    William L. Prosser, “Privacy,” California Law Review 48 (1960), p. 383.

  28. 28.

    Leslie P. Francis and John G. Frances, Privacy What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), pp. 6–7.

  29. 29.

    “UNR Student Talks After Marching in Charlottesville White Nationalist Rally,” KTVN

    (12 August 2017): https://www.ktvn.com/story/36123640/unr-student-marches-in-charlottesville-white-nationalist-rally.

  30. 30.

    Douglas, “Doxing,” p. 206.

  31. 31.

    Ibid., p. 199.

  32. 32.

    Ibid., p. 209. See also Julia M. MacAllister, “The Doxing Dilemma: Seeking a Remedy for the Malicious Publication of Personal Information,” Fordham Law Review 85:5 (2017), p. 2454.

  33. 33.

    Mallory Simon and Sara Sidner, “An Avalanche of Hate: How a Montana Mom Became the Target of a Neo-Nazi Troll Storm,” CNN (11 July 2017). https://www.cnn.com/2017/07/10/us/avalanche-of-hate-daily-stormer-lawsuit/index.html (Last accessed 25 June 2018).

  34. 34.

    "The constitutional guarantees of free speech and free press do not permit a State to forbid or proscribe advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action." From Brandenburg v. Ohio 395 U. S. 444 (1969).

  35. 35.

    Ellis, “Whatever Your Side, Doxing is a Perilous Form of Justice.”

  36. 36.

    Decca Muldowney, “Inside the Left’s Online Efforts to Out White Supremacists”

  37. 37.

    Douglas, “Doxing,” p. 205.

  38. 38.

    Ibid., p. 206.

  39. 39.

    Ibid., p. 209.

  40. 40.

    Martha Nussbaum, Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), p. 4.

  41. 41.

    Loren Lomasky, Rights Angles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), pp. 88–90.

  42. 42.

    Douglas, “Doxing,” p. 206.

  43. 43.

    Ibid., p. 207.

  44. 44.

    Ibid., p. 206.

  45. 45.

    Ibid., p. 207.

  46. 46.

    Michael Moore, Placing Blame: A General Theory of the Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 669–736.

  47. 47.

    Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia, p. 30.

  48. 48.

    John Rawls, The Law of the Peoples (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), pp. 98–9.

  49. 49.

    Douglas, “Doxing,” p. 206.

  50. 50.

    Richard T. De George, Business Ethics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2003), p. 299.

  51. 51.

    Michael Davis, “Whistleblowing”, in Hugh LaFollette (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 539–563;

  52. 52.

    I borrow here from Jeffrey Moriarty, "Business Ethics", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2017/entries/ethics-business/>.

  53. 53.

    Decca Muldowney, “Info Wars: Inside the Left’s Online Efforts to Out White Supremacists.”

  54. 54.

    Lior Jacob Strahilevitz, “Collective Privacy,” in The Offensive Internet: Speech, Privacy, and Reputation, edited by Saul Levmore and Martha C. Nussbaum (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010), p .232.

  55. 55.

    Christopher Morris, “Punishment and the Loss of Moral Standing,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21:1 (1991), p. 63.

  56. 56.

    Christopher Heath Wellman, “The Rights Forfeiture Theory of Punishment,” Ethics 122: 2 (January 2012), p. 371.

  57. 57.

    Warren Quinn, “The Right to Threaten and the Right to Punish, Philosophy & Public Affairs, 14:4 (1985), p. 329.

  58. 58.

    Christopher Heath Wellman, Rights Forfeiture and Punishment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), p. 2.

  59. 59.

    Wellman, Rights Forfeiture and Punishment, pp. 148–71.

  60. 60.

    Wellman, “The Rights Forfeiture Theory,” p. 373.

  61. 61.

    David Boonin, The Problem of Punishment (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 166. See also Alan H. Goldman “The Paradox of Punishment,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 9 (1979), p. 45.

  62. 62.

    Alan Feuer, “Planners of Deadly Charlottesville Rally Are Tested in Court,” New York Times 12 February 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/12/us/charlottesville-lawsuit-far-right-heather-heyer.html?emc=edit_th_180212 (Last accessed: 16 August 2018).

  63. 63.

    Daniel Victor, “Amateur Sleuths Aim to Identify Charlottesville Marchers, but Sometimes Misfire,” New York Times 14 August 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/us/charlottesville-doxxing.html (Last accessed: 18 June 2018).

  64. 64.

    Daniel Solove, “Speech, Privacy, and Reputation on the Internet,” in The Offensive Internet, p. 23.

  65. 65.

    Ellis, “Whatever Your Side, Doxing is a Perilous Form of Justice.”

  66. 66.

    Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, Critical Race Theory: An Introduction, 3rd edition (New York: New York University Press, 2017), p. 125.

  67. 67.

    Jessica Guynn, “BBQ Becky, Permit Patty, and Why the Internet is Shaming White People Who Police People ‘Simply for Being Black’,” USA Today 18 July 2018. https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2018/07/18/bbq-becky-permit-patty-and-why-internet-shaming-white-people-who-police-black-people/793574002/ (Last accessed: 20 August 2018).

  68. 68.

    See Jennifer H. Peck, “Minority Perceptions of Police: A State-of-Art-Review,” Policing: An International Journal on Police Strategies and Management, 38:1 (2015), pp. 173–203.

  69. 69.

    Thanks to Jennifer Kling for helpful comments on an earlier draft and to audiences at the 2019 Central Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, the 2019 Annual Conference of the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, the 2019 Great Lakes Philosophy Conference, and the 2019 Moral and Political Philosophy at the Border Conference.

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Barry, P.B. Doxing Racists. J Value Inquiry (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-020-09747-0

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