Inorganic Materials

, Volume 40, Issue 12, pp 1295–1300 | Cite as

Thermodynamic assessment of high-temperature oxidation of Fe—Cr alloys in air

  • O. Yu. Goncharov


A thermodynamic technique is proposed for assessing the variation of composition with depth in systems graded in composition. The technique is used to evaluate the compositions of scales forming on Fe, Cr, and Fe—Cr alloys during high-temperature oxidation in air. The coexistence of inclusions and extended precipitates of several phases in scales is interpreted in terms of oxidation thermodynamics kinetics.


Oxidation Inorganic Chemistry Thermodynamic Assessment Extended Precipitate Thermodynamic Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wagner, C. 1933Theory of Tarnishing ProcessZ. Phys. Chem. B212541(Munich)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagner, C. 1959Reaction Types in the Oxidation of AlloysZ. Electrochem.63772882Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rapp, R.A. 1965Kinetics, Microstructures, and Mechanism of Internal Oxidation, Its Effect and Prevention in High-Temperature Alloy OxidationCorrosion (Houston)21382400Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Douglass, D.L. 1995A Critique of Internal Oxidation in Alloys during the Post-Wagner EraOxid. Met.4481111Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meijering, J.L. 1971Internal Oxidation in AlloyAdv. Mater. Sci.5181Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gesmundo, F., Niu, Y. 1999The Formation of Two Layers in the Internal Oxidation of Binary Alloys by Two Oxidants in the Absence of External ScalesOxid. Met.51129158Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Young, D.J. 2000Internal Oxidation Processes under Non-Ideal ConditionsMater. High Temp.17465470Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Philibert, J. 1999Grain Boundary Diffusion and Oxidation ProcessesSolid State Ionics117711Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Birks, N., Meier, G.H. 1983Introduction to High-Temperature Oxidation of MetalsArnoldLondonTranslated under the title Vvedenie v vysokotemperaturnoe okislenie, Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1987Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vatolin, N.A., Moiseev, G.K., Trusov, B.G. 1994Termodinamicheskoe modelirovanie v vysokotemperaturnykh neorganicheskikh sistemakhMetallurgiyaMoscow(Thermodynamic Assessment of High-Temperature Inorganic Systems)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goncharov, O.Yu., Kanunnikova, O.M., Shakov, A.A., Lomaeva, S.F. 2001Composition of Surface Layers Forming during Preparation of the Amorphous Alloy Fe70Cr15B15Fiz. Met. Metalloved.916471Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Labun, P.A., Covington, J., Kuroda, K.,  et al. 1982Microstructural Investigation of the Oxidation of an Fe-3pct Cr AlloyMetall. Trans. A321032112Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kahveci, A.I., Welsch, G.E. 1986Oxidation of Fe-3 wt % Cr AlloyOxid. Met.26213230Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsuji, K., Hirokawa, K. 1996Nondestructive Depth Profiling of Oxidized Fe-Cr Alloy by the Glancing-Incidence and Takeoff Fluorescence MethodAppl. Surf. Sci.103451458Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kosaka, T., Suzuki, S., Inoue, H.,  et al. 1996XPS/GIXS Studies of Thin Oxide Films Formed on Fe-Cr AlloysAppl. Surf. Sci.1035561Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goncharova, N.V. and Makhneva, T.M., Thermodynamic Assessment of Nitrogen Solubility in Fe-Cr Alloys, Fiz. Khim. Obrab. Mater., 2000, no. 1, pp. 81–85.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goncharova, N.V., Makhneva, T.M., Elsukov, E.P.,  et al. 1998Residual Austenite in the Ferrite Alloy Fe-CrFiz. Met. Metalloved.865358Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tylkin, M.A., Plotnikova, L.P., Semenova, L.M., and Evtushenko, I.D., Effect of High-Temperature Oxidation on the Scale Composition and Steel Structure, Metalloved.Term. Obrab. Met., 1981, no. 3, pp. 44–47.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kučera, J., Haiduga, M., Strnský, K. 1993Krystalografická struktura a chemicke složeni okují vzniklých na povrchu oceli Fe-Cr-C p č 1100°CKokové Mater.316575Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Saeki, I., Saito, T., Furuichi, R.,  et al. 1998Growth Process of Protective Oxides Formed on Type 340 and 430 Stainless Steel at 1273 KCorros. Sci.4012951302Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Suzuki, S., Suzuki, K. 1991AES/GDS Characterization of Thin Oxide Films on Fe-Cr Sheet SteelsSurf. Interface Anal.17551555Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baikov, A.A. 1948Sobranie trudovAkad. Nauk SSSRMoscow531546(Collected Works)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eriksson, G., Hack, K. 1990ChemSage—A Computer Program for the Calculation of Complex Chemical EquilibriaMetall. Trans. B2110131023Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belov, G.V. 2002Termodinamicheskoe modelirovanie: metody, algoritmy, programmyNauchnyi MirMoscow(Thermodynamic Assessment: Methods, Algorithms, and Programs)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gurvich, L.V., Veits, I.V., Medvedev, V.A.,  et al. 1978Termodinamicheskie svoistva individual’nykh veshchestvNaukaMoscow(Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moiseev, G.K., Vatolin, N.A., Marshuk, L.A., Il’inykh, N.I. 1997Temperaturnye zavisimosti privedennoi energii Gibbsa nekotorykh neorganicheskikh veshchestvUral. Otd. Ross. Akad. NaukYekaterinburg(Temperature-Dependent Reduced Gibbs Energy of Some Inorganic Substances)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barin, I., Knacke, O., Kubaschewski, O. 1977Thermochemical Properties of Inorganic SubstancesSpringerBerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murris, I., Jacob, Y.P., Haanappel, V.A.C., Stroosnijder, M.F. 2001High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Chromium: Effect of Different BatchesOxid. Met.55307331Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacob, Y.P., Haanappel, V.A.C., Stroosnijder, M.F.,  et al. 2002The Effect of Gas Composition on the Isothermal Oxidation Behaviour of PM ChromiumCorros. Sci.4420272039Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kacsichy, T., Lieby, K.P., Schaperz, A., Schulte, O. 1996Oxidation of Thin Chromium Nitride Films: Kinetics and MorphologyJ. Phys.: Condens. Matter81070310719Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lu, Fu-H., Chen, H.-Y. 2001Phase Changes of CrN Films Annealed at High Temperature under Controlled AtmosphereThin Solid Films398367373Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor, J.R., Dinsdale, A.T. 1993Thermodynamic Assessment of the Cr-Fe-O SystemZ. Metallkd.84335345Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kositsina, I.I., Kabanova, I.G. 2003Nitriding Behavior of High-Chromium AlloysIzv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz.67944947Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xiaomei, L., Henrich, V.E. 1996Observation of Unusual Surface Defect Behavior on Single Crystal Cr2O3 (1012) under Ion BombardmentSolid State Commun.98711715Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Yu. Goncharov
    • 1
  1. 1.Physicotechnical Institute, Udmurt Scientific Center, Ural DivisionRussian Academy of SciencesIzhevskRussia

Personalised recommendations