IL-6 signalling pathways and the development of type 2 diabetes
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Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The elevated circulating level of IL-6 is an independent predictor of T2D and is considered to be involved in the development of inflammation, insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. On the other hand, an increasing number of evidence suggests that IL-6 has an anti-inflammatory role and improves glucose metabolism. The complex signal transduction mechanism of IL-6 may help explain the pleiotropic nature of the cytokine. IL-6 acts via two distinct signalling pathways called classic signalling and trans-signalling. While both signalling modes lead to activation of the same receptor subunit, their final biological effects are completely different. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge about the role of IL-6 in the development of T2D. We will also discuss the importance of specific blockade of IL-6 trans-signalling rather than inhibiting both signalling pathways as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of T2D and its associated macrovascular complications.
KeywordsType 2 diabetes IL-6 Classic signalling Trans-signalling
This work was supported by the Iran National Science Foundation with the Award Number 94000647.
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