Persea americana Mill. crude extract exhibits antinociceptive effect on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice

  • Viviane C. K. N. Deuschle
  • Indiara Brusco
  • Mariana Piana
  • Henrique Faccin
  • Leandro Machado de Carvalho
  • Sara Marchesan Oliveira
  • Carine Viana
Original Article


Persea americana, popularly known as avocado, has been empirically used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory including in the skin disorder treatment. Species of the genus Persea also show a photoprotective effect against UVB radiation. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects from a topical formulation containing the P. americana leaf extract in a UVB irradiation-induced burn model in mice and performed a gel-formulation stability study. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through mechanical allodynia, paw oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Phenolic compounds were quantified by UHPLC–MS/MS. The gel-formulation stability study was performed analyzing organoleptic characteristics, pH, and viscosity. P. americana (3%) gel was able to prevent the UVB irradiation-induced mechanical allodynia on the 2nd and 3rd day after irradiation with maximum inhibition of 60 ± 12% at 2nd day. Such effect may be attributed, at least in part, due the presence of (+)-catechin (302.2 ± 4.9 μg/g) followed by chlorogenic acid (130 ± 5.1 μg/g) and rutin (102.4 ± 0.9 μg/g) found in the extract. The gel was not able to prevent the inflammatory parameters such as edema and leukocyte infiltration induced by UVB irradiation. No changes important were detected in the stability study, mainly in low temperature. Our results suggest that P. americana gel-formulation, which presented stability, ensuring its quality and the therapeutic effect, could be an interesting strategy for the treatment of the pain associated with sunburn; this effect could be attributed to its biological constituents, especially catechin, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.

Graphical abstract


Avocado Allodynia Inflammation Sunburn Pain 





Ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography associated with mass spectrometry


Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid






Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide


Multiple reaction monitoring


Brazilian regulatory agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária)


Ethics Committee for Animal Research


Paw withdrawal threshold




Standard error of the mean



This study was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS/CNPq). We also acknowledge fellowships from CNPq and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES) (Brazil).

Author contribution

Participated in research design: VD, IB, CV, SMO conducted experiments: VD, IB, CV, SMO plant material and extractions, gel preparation, accelerated stability study, data analysis, writing and discussion of these: MP, VD UHPLC–MS/MS Chromatograph, data analysis, writing and discussion of these: HF, LMC performed data analysis: VD, IB, CV, SMO wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: VD, IB, CV, SMO all the authors reviewed the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with international and national and were approved by Ethics Committee for Animal Research of the Federal University of Santa Maria (process number 1974200416/2016).


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical SciencesFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Graduate Program in Biological Sciences: Biochemistry ToxicologyFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Graduate Program in ChemistryFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyFederal University of Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil

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