, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 11–22 | Cite as

Celecoxib and fish oil: a combination strategy for decreased inflammatory mediators in early stages of experimental mammary cancer

  • Anjana Kumari Negi
  • Renuka
  • Archana Bhatnagar
  • Navneet Agnihotri
Original Article


Chronic inflammation has been directly linked to cancer progression. Therefore, current study was designed to understand the mechanism of action of chemo-preventive effect of celecoxib and fish oil on inflammatory mediators in experimental mammary carcinoma. Female Wistar rats were distributed into control and DMBA treated groups and further subdivided based on pretreatment with celecoxib and/or fish oil. Inflammation was measured by assessing expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines. The results indicated an elevation in expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines’ levels (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in DMBA group as compared to controls. On pretreatment with celecoxib and/or fish oil in DMBA treated animals, a significant reduction in expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines’ levels was observed. The decrease was more pronounced with combinatorial regimen than either celecoxib or fish oil alone. To conclude, a combinatorial strategy of celecoxib and fish oil may generate an immune response against the tumor cell by altering cytokine repertoire and decrease the tendency of tumor cells to escape immune surveillance.


Inflammation Cytokine Interleukins NF-κB COX-2 



The authors would like to acknowledge the University Grants Commission (India) as Ms. Anjana Kumari Negi is SRF-UGC. The authors thank Dr. B. N. Dutta, former Professor of Pathology and Dean of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, for his advice and expertise in immunohistochemical procedure.

Supplementary material

10787_2015_259_MOESM1_ESM.doc (3.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 3890 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjana Kumari Negi
    • 1
  • Renuka
    • 1
  • Archana Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • Navneet Agnihotri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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