, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

The kinin system in hypertensive pathophysiology

  • Jagdish N. Sharma
Review Article


Cardiovascular diseases are the prime cause of death in the world. The kallikrein–kinin system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the vascular smooth muscle and cardiac dysfunctions. In recent years, numerous observations obtained from clinical and experimental models of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemia, myocardial infarction and left ventricular hypertrophy, have suggested that the reduced activity of the local kallikrein–kinin system may be instrumental for the induction of cardiovascular-related diseases. The cardioprotective actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are primarily dependent on protecting the kinin-forming components, which may cause regression of the left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive situations. The ability of kallikrein gene delivery to produce a wide spectrum of beneficial effects makes it an excellent candidate in treating hypertension, cardiovascular and renal diseases. In addition, stable kinin agonists may also be available in the future as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular and renal disorders.


Kallikrein–kinin system Cardio protection Hypertension Cardiac diseases Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 


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© Springer Basel AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Sciences CenterKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait

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