Institutional interplay and effectiveness: assessing efforts to conserve western hemisphere shorebirds
- 116 Downloads
Bird conservation agencies and organizations can take credit for a long list of transnational policy accomplishments. This article examines one set, a constellation of arrangements developed over the past three decades by those seeking to conserve western hemisphere shorebirds. At the center of this constellation are the US and Canadian national shorebird conservation plans and a cross-border initiative, the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Conservation Reserve Network. We treat these and associated plans, programs, and initiatives as a nested set of institutions, noting that these are operated by a wide assortment of state and societal actors. Exploring the potential of a framework based on Oran Young’s concept of interplay, we analyze the construction of these institutions and efforts to establish effectiveness. Examining activity in three zones of issue proximity, we conclude that shorebird conservationists have responded well to formative interplay challenges. They have made least progress in engaging remote institutions responsible for threats to shorebird habitat. We note, though, that it is important to distinguish between scientific and political levels of interplay work. On a substantive level we conclude that the shorebird community is well-positioned to move beyond generative and programmatic tasks to focus on establishing policy capability. On a theoretical level, we conclude that a framework based on interplay provides a strong foundation for analysis of the forces shaping the effectiveness of informal conservation institutions such as the ones examined.
KeywordsBird conservation Biodiversity conservation Western hemisphere shorebird conservation network Effectiveness of environmental institutions Oran Young Fit and interplay Transnational environmental institutions Environmental policy
I would like to thank Georgie Wilson and the journal’s referees for their helpful comments on earlier drafts. I would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
- Boardman, R. (2006). The international politics of bird conservation. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Breitmeier, H., Young, O. R., & Zurn, M. (2006). Analyzing international environmental regimes: From case study to database. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, S., Hickey, C., Harrington, B., & Gill, R. (Eds.) (2001). The US shorebird conservation plan (2nd ed.). Manomet, MA: Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences.Google Scholar
- Burnett, J. A. (2003). A passion for wildlife: The history of the Canadian wildlife service. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Cashore, B., Hoberg, G., Howlett, M., Rayner, J., & Wilson, J. (2001). In search of sustainability : British Columbia forest policy in the 1990s. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Donaldson, G., Hyslop, C., Morrison, G., Davidson, I., & Dickson, L. (Eds.) (2000). Canadian shorebird conservation plan. Ottawa: Minister of Environment, Canadian Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
- Dorsey, K. (1998). The dawn of conservation diplomacy: US-Canadian wildlife protection treaties in the progressive era. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Environmental Justice Foundation. (2003). Draft protocol for sustainable shrimp production. London, UK: Environmental Justice Foundation.Google Scholar
- Environmental Justice Foundation. (2004). Farming the sea, costing the earth: Why we must green the blue revolution. London, UK: Environmental Justice Foundation.Google Scholar
- Fellows, S., Stone, K., Jones, S., Damude, N., & Brown, S. (2001). Central plains/Playa Lakes regional shorebird conservation plan version 1.0. Retrieved 1 April 2007 from http://www.fws.gov/shorebirdplan/RegionalShorebird/RegionalPlans.htm.
- Fernández, G., Warnock, N. D., Lank, D. L., & Buchanan, J. B. (2006). Conservation plan for the western sandpiper, version 1.0. Manomet, MA: Manomet Center for Conservation Science.Google Scholar
- Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Keohane, R. O., Haas, P. M., & Levy, M. A. (1993). The effectiveness of international environmental institutions. In Peter, M. H., Robert, O. K., & Marc, A. L. (Eds.), Institutions for the earth: Sources of effective international environmental protection (pp. 19–28). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- King, L. A. (1997). Institutional interplay: Research questions (Institutional Dimensions of Global Change International Human Dimensions Programme).Google Scholar
- Kushlan, J. A., et al. (2002). Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1. Washington, DC: Waterbird Conservation for the Americas.Google Scholar
- Marzluff, J. M., & Sallabanks, R. (Eds.) (1998). Avian conservation: Research and management. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Melcher, C. P., Farmer, A., & Fernández, G. (2006). Conservation plan for the marbled godwit, version 1.1. Manomet, MA: Manomet Center for Conservation Science.Google Scholar
- Miles, E. L., Underdal, A., Andresen, S., Wettestad, J., Skjaerseth, J. B., & Carlin, E. M. (2002). Environmental regime effectiveness: Confronting theory with evidence. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Morrison, G. (1995). From the Arctic to Tierra Del Fuego—Shorebird migration and the evolution of WHSRN. In Transcripts from the western hemisphere shorebird reserve network workshop. Ottawa, 11–13 May 1995.Google Scholar
- Oberthür, S., & Gehring, T. (Eds.) (2006). Institutional interaction in global environmental governance: Synergy and conflict among international and EU policies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Oring, L. W., Neel, L., & Oring, K. E. (2007). Intermountain west regional shorebird plan version 1.0, revised 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007 from http://www.fws.gov/shorebirdplan/RegionalShorebird/RegionalPlans.htm.
- Princen, T., Maniates, M., & Conca, K. (Eds.) (2002). Confronting consumption. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Risse-Kappen, T. (1995). Bringing transnational relations back in: Non-state actors, domestic structures and international institutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Santana, E. C. (2005). A context for bird conservation in México: Challenges, opportunities. In C. J. Ralph & T. D. Rich (Eds.), Bird conservation implementation and integration in the Americas: Proceedings of the Third International Partners in Flight Conference, 2002 (pp. 15–25). Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
- Schaeffer-Novelli, Y., Cintrón-Molero, G., & Coelho, V. Jr. (2006). Managing shorebird flyways: Shrimp aquaculture, shorebird populations and flyway integrity. In G. C. Boere, C. A. Galbraith, & D. A. Stroud (Eds.), Waterbirds around the world: A global overview of the conservation, management and research of the world’s waterbird flyways (pp. 812–816). Edinburgh, UK: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
- Skagen, S. K., & Thompson, G. (2007). Northern Plains/Prairie Pothole Regional Shorebird Plan version 1, revised 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007 from http://www.fws.gov/shorebirdplan/RegionalShorebird/RegionalPlans.htm.
- Thurston, H. (1996). The nature of shorebirds: Nomads of the wetlands. Vancouver, BC: Greystone Books.Google Scholar
- US NABCI Committee. (2000). North American bird conservation initiative: Bringing it all together: Bird conservation regions. Washington: US NABCI Committee.Google Scholar
- US Fish and Wildlife Service. (2004). A blueprint for the future of migratory birds: Migratory bird program strategic plan 2004–2014. Washington: US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2 December 2006 from http://www.fws.gov/migratorybirds/mbstratplan/finalmbstratplan.pdf.
- Victor, D. G., Raustiala, K., & Eugene, S. (Eds.) (1998). The implementation and effectiveness of international environmental commitments: Theory and practice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Weidensaul, S. (1999). Living on the wind: Across the hemisphere with migratory birds. New York: North Point Press.Google Scholar
- Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN). (2006). Strategic plan: 2004–2008 (Revised 3 March 2006). Manomet, MA: Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences.Google Scholar
- Young, O. R. (1999). Governance in world affairs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Young, O. R. (2002). The institutional dimensions of environmental change. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Young, O. R. (as revised by Heike Schroeder) (2005). Science plan: Institutional dimensions of global environmental change (Revised ed., International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change Report No. 16). Retrieved 22 June 2007 from http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~idgec/publications/IHDP-IDGECreport16.pdf.
- Young, O. (2006). Vertical interplay among scale-dependent environmental and resource regimes. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 27. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art27/.