Advertisement

Comparative Analysis of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor–Actor Networks: A Review

  • Jagadeesh Kakarla
  • Banshidhar Majhi
  • Ramesh Babu Battula
Article

Abstract

Wireless sensor–actor networks (WSANs) are applicable in versatile domains ranging from very common to those which demand reliable actions in the event area. The unique characteristics of WSANs and the resource-constrained nature of the constituent sensor nodes give rise to design energy and delay efficient routing protocols. Many researchers have made considerable efforts to meet these challenges by designing energy and delay efficient protocols. In this paper, a comprehensive survey is presented on existing routing protocols for WSAN to analyze and list out their merits and demerits. The study broadly segregates the existing routing protocols into two categories i.e., cluster based and non-cluster based protocols. The cluster based protocols structure the physical network into virtual groups, whereas the non-cluster based protocols either use flooding or broadcasting mechanisms for communication. All the routing protocols under consideration have been simulated in a common simulation platform. Their performances are analyzed with respect to average end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and average energy dissipation in the network individually. In addition, the best protocols among both the categories are compared to derive an overall conclusion.

Keywords

Actor Delay Packet delivery ratio Energy  Sensor 

References

  1. 1.
    A. Rezgui and M. Eltoweissy, “Service-oriented sensor–actuator networks: Promises, challenges, and the road ahead,” Computer Communications, vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 2627–2648, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Melodia, D. Pompili, V. Gungor, and I. Akyildiz, “Communication and coordination in wireless sensor and actor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1116–1129, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Jafari, A. Encarnacao, A. Zahoory, F. Dabiri, H. Noshadi, and M. Sarrafzadeh, “Wireless sensor networks for health monitoring,” in The Second Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, 2005, pp. 479–481.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Trossen and D. Pavel, “Sensor networks, wearable computing, and healthcare applications,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 58–61, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Akyildiz, S. Weilian, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “A survey on sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102–114, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Al-Karaki and A. Kamal, “Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: a survey,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 6–28, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X. Wang, L. Ding, B. Dao-Wei, and S. Wang, “Energy-efficient optimization of reorganization-enabled wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1793–1816, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Vasanthi and S. Annadurai, “Sleep schedule for fast and efficient control of parameters in wireless sensor–actor networks,” in First International Conference on Communication System Software and Middleware. IEEE, 2006, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Rajagopalan and P. Varshney, “Data-aggregation techniques in sensor networks: a survey,” IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 48–63, 2006.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Shah and M. Hassan, “A reliable event response framework for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE Workshops of International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2011, pp. 396–401.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.-L. Wu, Y.-C. Tseng, and S. Ivan, Eds., Energy conservation in sensor and sensor–actuator networks. Auerbach Publications, 2007.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. Gungora, M. Vurana, and O. Akanb, “On the cross-layer interactions between congestion and contention in wireless sensor and actor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 897 – 909, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Zamanifar, M. Sharifi, and O. Kashefi, “Self actor–actor connectivity restoration in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in First Asian Conference on Intelligent Information and Database Systems. IEEE, 2009, pp. 442–447.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Gao, J. Wang, and X. Song, “Data collection scheme of mobile sink in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 11th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. IEEE, 2014, pp. 2505–2508.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Z. Cai, X. Ren, G. Hao, B. Chen, and Z. Xue, “Survey on wireless sensor and actor network,” in 9th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. IEEE, 2011, pp. 788–793.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Konstantopoulos, I. Venetis, G. Pantziou, and D. Gavalas, “An efficient event handling protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication. IEEE, 2014, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Boukerche, R. Araujo, and L. Villas, “A wireless actor and sensor networks qos-aware routing protocol for the emergency preparedness class of applications,” in 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks. IEEE, 2006, pp. 832–839.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Peng, W. Huafeng, and G. Chuanshan, “Elrs: an energy-efficient layered routing scheme for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 20th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, vol. 2. IEEE, 2006, pp. 5–pp.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Shibo, J. Chen, P. Cheng, Y. Gu, H. Tian, and Y. Sun, “Maintaining quality of sensing with actors in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1657–1667, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. Li, E. Chan, M. Hamdi, S. Lu, and D. Chen, “Communication cost minimization in wireless sensor and actor networks for road surveillance,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 618–631, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. Abbas, H. Jaleel, and M. Egerstedt, “Energy-efficient data collection in heterogeneous wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control. IEEE, 2013, pp. 4164–4169.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Kamali, S. Sedighian, and M. Sharifi, “A distributed recovery mechanism for actor–actor connectivity in wireless sensor actor networks,” in International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing. IEEE, 2008, pp. 183–188.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Muazzam, G. Shah, M. Ahsan, and M. Sher, “An efficient and reliable clustering algorithm for wireless sensor actor networks (wsans),” in 53rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. IEEE, 2010, pp. 332–338.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Selvaradjou, H. Nikhil, A. Franklin, and C. Siva, “Energy-efficient directional routing between partitioned actors in wireless sensor and actor networks,” IET communications, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 102–115, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Sedighian, M. Sharifi, S. Azhari, and H. Momeni, “Service requirements for actor–actor coordination through sensor nodes in wireless sensor actor networks,” in International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology. IEEE, 2008, pp. 475–479.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Sabri, S. Aljunid, R. Ahmad, M. Malik, A. Yahya, R. Kamaruddin, and M. Salim, “Towards smart wireless sensor actor networks: design factors and applications,” in IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications. IEEE, 2011, pp. 704–708.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Kashi and M. Sharifi, “Connectivity weakness impacts on coordination in wireless sensor and actor networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 145–166, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. Senel, K. Akkaya, and M. Younis, “An efficient mechanism for establishing connectivity in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1129–1133.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Ozaki, K. Watanabe, S. Itaya, N. Hayashibara, T. Enokido, and M. Takizawa, “A fault-tolerant model of wireless sensor–actor network,” in Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing. IEEE, 2006, pp. 8–pp.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Abbasi, M. Younis, and U. Baroudi, “Restoring connectivity in wireless sensor–actor networks with minimal node movement,” in 7th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference. IEEE, 2011, pp. 2046–2051.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Zhang, X. Wu, and H. Wang, “Length-aware topology reconfiguration in wireless sensor–actor networks to recover from an actor failure,” in 33rd Chinese Control Conference. IEEE, 2014, pp. 304–309.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Abbasi, F. Younis, and U. Baroudi, “Recovering from a node failure in wireless sensor-actor networks with minimal topology changes,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 256–271, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. Sabri, S. Aljunid, R. Ahmad, M. Malik, A. Yahya, R. Kamaruddin, and M. Salim, “Wireless sensor actor networks,” in IEEE Symposium on Wireless Technology and Applications. IEEE, 2011, pp. 90–95.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Barbar, M. Diaz, I. Esteve, D. Garrido, L. Llopis, B. Rubio, and J. Troya, “Tc-wsans: A tuple channel based coordination model for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 12th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications. IEEE, 2007, pp. 173–178.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Ian and H. Ismail, “Wireless sensor and actor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 351–367, 2004.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Boukerche and A. Martirosyan, “An efficient algorithm for preserving events’ temporal relationships in wireless sensor actor networks,” in 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks. IEEE, 2007, pp. 771–780.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Martirosyan and A. Boukerche, “Preserving temporal relationships of events for wireless sensor actor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1203–1216, 2012.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Habib, M. Safar, and N. ElSayed, “Automatic placement of actors within wireless sensor–actor networks,” in Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference. IEEE, 2008, pp. 224–229.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. Rafe, H. Momeni, and M. Sharifi, “Energy-aware task allocation in wireless sensor actor networks,” in Second International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering, vol. 1. IEEE, 2009, pp. 145–148.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Barolli, T. Yang, M. Ikeda, A. Durresi, and F. Xhafa, “A simulation system for routing efficiency in wireless sensor–actor networks: a case study for semi-automated architecture,” in Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2008. ICPADS’08. 14th IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2008, pp. 567–574.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Z. Li and H. Shen, “A kautz-based real-time and energy-efficient wireless sensor and actuator network,” in 32nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. IEEE, 2012, pp. 62–71.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    N. Trivedi, G. Elangovan, S. Iyengar, and N. Balakrishnan, “A message-efficient, distributed clustering algorithm for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems. IEEE, 2006, pp. 53–58.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Akba, M. Brust, and D. Turgut, “Sofrop: Self-organizing and fair routing protocol for wireless networks with mobile sensors and stationary actors,” Computer Communications, vol. 34, no. 18, pp. 2135–2146, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Chinnappen-Rimer and G. Hancke, “Actor coordination in wireless sensor–actor networks,” in INDICON Conference. IEEE, 2009, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Momeni, M. Sharifi, and S. Sedighian, “A new approach to task allocation in wireless sensor actor networks,” in First International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks. IEEE, 2009, pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. Narasimhan, A. Arvind, and K. Bever, “Greenhouse asset management using wireless sensor–actor networks,” in International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies. IEEE, 2007, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. Zamanifar, M. Sharifi, and S. Sedighian, “A distributed algorithm for restoring actor–actor connectivity in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in International Conference on Electronic Design. IEEE, 2008, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Kim and J. A. Cobb, “Optimization trade-offs in the design of wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 37th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2012, pp. 559–567.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Zamanifar, M. Sharifi, and O. Kashefi, “A hybrid approach to actor–actor connectivity restoration in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in Eighth International Conference on Networks. IEEE, 2009, pp. 76–81.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Alamuti, “Three protocols for actor selection in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in International Conference on Education and e-Learning Innovations. IEEE, 2012, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. Ranga, M. Dave, and V. Anil, “A distributed approach for selection of optimal actor nodes in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics. IEEE, 2014, pp. 312–319.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Akbas, E. M., and D. Turgut, “Localization for wireless sensor and actor networks with meandering mobility,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 1015–1028, April 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    X. Li, X. Liang, R. Lu, S. He, J. Chen, and X. Shen, “Toward reliable actor services in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 8th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems. IEEE, 2011, pp. 351–360.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Alaiwy, F. Alaiwy, and S. Habib, “Optimization of actors placement within wireless sensor–actor networks,” in 12th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, 2007, pp. 179–184.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Shah, M. Bozyigit, and F. Hussain, “Cluster-based coordination and routing framework for wireless sensor and actor networks,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 11, no. 8, 2011.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. Imran, N. Haider, and M. Alnuem, “Efficient movement control actor relocation for honing connected coverage in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 37th Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops. IEEE, 2012, pp. 710–717.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. Dong, K. Ota, S. Du, H. Zhu, and S. Guo, “Ants: Pushing the rapid event notification in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in International Joint Conference on Awareness Science and Technology and Ubi-Media Computing. IEEE, 2013, pp. 753–758.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    N. Dinh and Y. Kim, “Directional anycast routing in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies. IEEE, 2012, pp. 251–255.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. Tuan and Y. Wu, “Event ordering by double confirmation in wireless sensor and actor networks,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 829–836, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    T. Melodia, D. Pompili, and I. Akyldiz, “Handling mobility in wireless sensor and actor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 160–173, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    T. Issariyakul and H. E, “Introduction to network simulator 2 (ns2),” in Introduction to Network Simulator NS2. Springer US, 2009, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. Kim and J. Cobb, “Optimal transmission range for multi-hop communication in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in 36th Conference on Local Computer Networks. IEEE, 2011, pp. 223–226.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    P. Lameski, E. Zdravevski, A. Kulakov, and D. Davcev, “Architecture for wireless sensor and actor networks control and data acquisition,” in International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems and Workshops. IEEE, 2011, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    P. Bose, P. Morin, and J. Urrutia, “Routing with guaranteed delivery in ad hoc wireless networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 609–616, 2001.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    W. Chen, J. Hou, and L. Sha, “Dynamic clustering for acoustic target tracking in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 258–271, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    C. Eduardo, D. Manuel, L. Luis, and R. Bartolom, “Hero: A hierarchical, efficient and reliable routing protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks,” Computer Communications, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1392 – 1409, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Y. Haidong, M. Huadong, and L. Hongyu, “Coordination mechanism in wireless sensor and actor networks,” in First International Multi-Symposiums on Computer and Computational Sciences, vol. 2, 2006, pp. 627–634.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    A. Boukerche, R. Araujo, and L. Villas, “A wireless actor and sensor networks qos-aware routing protocol for the emergency preparedness class of applications,” in 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2006, pp. 832–839.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    M. Tommaso, P. Dario, C. Vehbi, and I. F. Akyildiz, “A distributed coordination framework for wireless sensor and actor networks,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference, 2005, pp. 99–110.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Fei, C. Xiaojun, S. Kumar, and K. Sankar, “Trustworthiness in wireless sensor and actuator networks: towards low-complexity reliability and security,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, vol. 3, 2005.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    L. Yen-Ting and S. Megerian, “Low cost distributed actuation in large-scale ad hoc sensor–actuator networks,” in International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, 2005, pp. 975–980.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    D. ZhiCheng, W. Bingwen, L. Zhi, and A. Yin, “Vdspt: A sensor–actor coordination protocol for wireless sensor and actor network based on voronoi diagram and shortest path tree,” in International Symposium on Computer Network and Multimedia Technology, 2009, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. McLaughlan and K. Akkaya, “Coverage-based clustering of wireless sensor and actor networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Services, 2007, pp. 45–54.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    A. Durresi, V. Paruchuri, and L. Barolli, “Delay-energy aware routing protocol for sensor and actor networks,” in 11th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 1, 2005, pp. 292–298.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    S. Yahiaoui, M. Omar, A. Bouabdallah, and Y. Challal, “Multi-actuators based anycast routing protocol for wireless sensor and actuator networks,” in International Conference on Advanced Networking Distributed Systems and Applications. IEEE, 2014, pp. 31–34.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. Reina, S. Toral, P. Johnson, and F. Barrero, “An improvement of route duration in wsan based on nodes mobility and rss,” in 37th Annual Conference on Industrial Electronics Society. IEEE, 2011, pp. 2986–2991.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Wen, N. Bulusu, and J. Sanjay, “A communication paradigm for hybrid sensor/actuator networks,” in 15th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 1, 2004, pp. 201–205.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. Haapola and N. Bui, “Towards dynamic application-dependent protocol stacks for wsans,” in Future Network and Mobile Summit. IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    K. Jagadeesh, B. Majhi, and B. Ramesh, “A voronoi diagram based efficient coordination mechanism for wsan,” in First International Conference on Networks and Soft Computing. IEEE, 2014, pp. 226–230.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Z. Ngai, E.C.H Yangfan, M. Lyu, , and L. Jiangchuan, “Reliable reporting of delay-sensitive events in wireless sensor–actuator networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 2006, pp. 101–108.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    A. Durresi and V. Paruchuri, “Geometric broadcast protocol for sensor and actor networks,” in 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, vol. 1, 2005, pp. 343–348.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    E. Cayirci, T. Coplu, and O. Emiroglu, “Power aware many to many routing in wireless sensor and actuator networks,” in Proceeedings of the Second European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, 2005, pp. 236–245.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Z. Yangfan, L. M. Ngai, E.C.H, and L. Jiangchuan, “Power-speed: A power-controlled real-time data transport protocol for wireless sensor–actuator networks,” in IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2007, pp. 3736–3740.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    F. T, “Scalable routing in sensor actuator networks with churn,” in 3rd Annual IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, vol. 1, 2006, pp. 30–39.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    L. SuetFei, “Wireless sensor actuator network for light monitoring and control application,” in 3rd IEEE Conference on Consumer Communications and Networking, vol. 2, 2006, pp. 974–978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CSENIT RourkelaRourkelaIndia
  2. 2.Department of CSEMNIT JaipurJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations