Low-Load Survivable Routing Protocol for LEO Satellite Networks

  • Lu Yong
  • Zhao Youjian
  • Sun Fuchun
  • Li Hongbo


In this paper, we put forward the methods of footprint shift and separation for the virtual topology model of LEO satellite networks, which can reduce the effects of the Polar Regions and cross-seam inter-satellite-links (ISLs) on the virtual topology and improve the utilization of ISLs. Furthermore, a low-load survivable routing protocol called Virtual Snapshot Routing Protocol is proposed for LEO satellite networks. The proposed protocol not only reduces the routing computation and storage overheads, but also provides good routing survivability under random satellite failure. The experimental results confirm our conclusions.


Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite network Footprint Virtual snapshot Survivability 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No: 61233007, 61373144, 61473161), National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant No: 2013CB329105, 2012CB821206). The General Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No: 61472210, 61472214). The National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (Grant No: 2013AA013302). Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (Grant No: 20131089295).


  1. 1.
    D. Clark, The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols, SIGCOMM 88 Symposium proceedings on Communications architectures and protocols 1988;18(4): 106-14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Open Shortest Path First V2, RFC, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments 1998;2328.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Routing Information Protocol V2, RFC, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments 1998;2453.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Werner, A dynamic routing concept for ATM-based satellite personal communication networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 1636–1648, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang, H. S, Kim, B. W, Lee, C, FSA-based link assignment and routing in low-earth orbit satellite networks, IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, 1998; 47 (3):1037-1048.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gounder, V.V., Prakash, R., Abu-Amara, H, Routing in LEO-based satellite networks, In: Richardson,TX. Proc of the Wireless Communications and Systems Workshop, 1999:2211-2216.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Chang, B. W. Kim, C. G. Lee, Y. Choi, S. L. Min, H. S. Yang, and C. S. Kim, Topological design and routing for low-earth orbit satellite networks, in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM’95 1995;529–535.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Werner, C. Delucchi, H.-J. Vogel, G. Maral and J.-J. De Ridder, ATM-based routing in LEO/MEO satellite networks with intersatellite links, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 69–82, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Uzunalioglu, I. F. Akyildiz and M. D. Bender, A routing algorithm for LEO satellite networks with dynamic connectivity, ACM–Baltzer, J. Wireless Networks (WINET), Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 181–190, 2000.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Wang, L. Li and M. Zhou, Topological dynamics characterization for LEO satellite networks, Computer Networks, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 43–53, 2009.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fischer D,Basin D,Engel T, Topology dynamics and routing for predictable mobile networks. In:Proc.of the ICNP 2008.Orlando: IEEE Communications Society 2008:207-217.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Ekici, I. F. Akyildiz and M. D. Bender, A Distributed Routing Algorithm for Datagram Traffic in LEO Satellite Networks, IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 137–147, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T.R. Henderson, R.H. Katz, On distributed, geographic-based packet routing for LEO satellite networks, in: Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference 2000; 2:1119–1123.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. A. N. G. Kaidong, Y. I. Kechu, T. I. A. N. Bin and W. U. Chengke, Packet routing algorithm for polar orbit LEO satellite constellation network, Science in China: Series F Information Sciences, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 103–127, 2006.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. Korcak, F. Alagoz and A. Jamalipour, Priority-based adaptive routing in NGEO satellite networks, International Journal of Communication Systems, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 313–333, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Chen and E. Ekici, A Routing Protocol for Hierarchical LEO/MEO Satellite IP Networks, ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks Journal (WINET), Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 507–521, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fei Long, Naixue Xiong, Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Laurence T. Yang and Fuchun Sun, A sustainable heuristic QoS routing algorithm for pervasive multi-layered satellite wireless networks, J. Wireless Networks, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1657–1673, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yunhui Zhou, Fuchun Sun, Bo Zhang, A novel QoS routing protocol for LEO and MEO satellite networks, Int. J. Satell. Commun. Network. 2007; 25:603–617.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yuan Rao, Ru-chuan Wang, Agent-based load balancing routing for LEO satellite networks, computer networks, Vol. 54, No. 17, pp. 3187–3195, 2010.MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Restrepo and G. Maral, Cellular geometry for world-wide coverage by non-GEO satellites using ‘Earth-fixed cell’ technique, Space Communications, Vol. 14, pp. 179–189, 1996.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Korcak Omer and Alagoz Fatih, Virtual topology dynamics and handover mechanisms in Earth-fixed LEO satellite systems, Vol. 53, No. 9, pp. 1497–1511, 2009.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Lu, F. C. Sun and Y. J. Zhao, Virtual topology for LEO satellite networks based on earth-fixed footprint mode, IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 357–360, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Lu, Y. J. Zhao, F. C. Sun and H. B. Li, A survivable routing protocol for two-layered LEO/MEO satellite networks, Wireless Networks, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 871–887, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu Yong, Fuchun Sun, Youjian Zhao, Hongbo Li and Heyu Liu, Distributed traffic balancing routing for LEO satellite networks, International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 9–16, 2013.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. C. Hubbel and L. M. Sanders, A comparison of the IRIDIUM and AMPS systems, IEEE Network, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 52–59, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.A. Sturza, Architecture of the Teledesic satellite system. In Proc. of the International Mobile Satellite Conference (IMSC) 1995,214–218.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Ferreira, & Galtier, J, Topological design, routing and hand-over in satellite networks, WileyHandbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing London, 2005. pp. 473–507.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Force Airborne AcademyGuilinChina
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and TechnologyTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations