Scaled Selection Combining for Adaptive Decode-and-Forward Relaying in Dissimilar Rayleigh Fading Channels

  • Dawei Zhao
  • Honglin Zhao
  • Min Jia


This paper enhances the conventional scaled selection combiner (SSC) for decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks using adaptive M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) to improve the spectral efficiency. Compared with the conventional SSC designed for the combining of identically distributed diversity branches using the same modulation level, the improved SSC allows all diversity branches to choose different modulation levels according to the dissimilar channel conditions. Different scale factors are used for all diversity branches to reflect not only the performance degradation caused by possible erroneous relaying but also different error-resistance abilities of different levels QAM. We derive the bit-error-rate (BER) expressions for DF relay networks using SSC in a recursive way, with all channels conforming to independently and non-identically distributed ( Rayleigh fading. Newton’s method is employed to obtain the numerical solutions of the optimal scale factors minimizing the BER, and the approximations of the optimal scale factors are derived in closed form for high SNRs. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the improved SSC can effectively combine diversity branches with different modulation levels, and for a DF cooperative network with N relay nodes, SSC achieves the full diversity gain of N+1 if for each branch its source-to-relay SNR is proportional to the (N+1)th power of its relay-to-destination SNR.


Adaptive modulation Cooperative diversity Decode-and-forward Erroneous relaying M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) Selection combining 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant No. 61201143), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. HIT.IBRSEM.201309) and Innovation Foundations of CAST (ITS) (Grant No.F-W-YY-2013-016). The authors would like to thank Prof. Kaveh Pahlavan and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication Research CenterHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

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