International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 57, Issue 2, pp 476–494 | Cite as

Exploring the Implementation of Steganography Protocols on Quantum Audio Signals

  • Kehan Chen
  • Fei Yan
  • Abdullah M. Iliyasu
  • Jianping Zhao


Two quantum audio steganography (QAS) protocols are proposed, each of which manipulates or modifies the least significant qubit (LSQb) of the host quantum audio signal that is encoded as an FRQA (flexible representation of quantum audio) audio content. The first protocol (i.e. the conventional LSQb QAS protocol or simply the cLSQ stego protocol) is built on the exchanges between qubits encoding the quantum audio message and the LSQb of the amplitude information in the host quantum audio samples. In the second protocol, the embedding procedure to realize it implants information from a quantum audio message deep into the constraint-imposed most significant qubit (MSQb) of the host quantum audio samples, we refer to it as the pseudo MSQb QAS protocol or simply the pMSQ stego protocol. The cLSQ stego protocol is designed to guarantee high imperceptibility between the host quantum audio and its stego version, whereas the pMSQ stego protocol ensures that the resulting stego quantum audio signal is better immune to illicit tampering and copyright violations (a.k.a. robustness). Built on the circuit model of quantum computation, the circuit networks to execute the embedding and extraction algorithms of both QAS protocols are determined and simulation-based experiments are conducted to demonstrate their implementation. Outcomes attest that both protocols offer promising trade-offs in terms of imperceptibility and robustness.


Quantum computation Quantum information Quantum audio Audio steganography Least significant qubit 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61502053), the Science & Technology Development Program of Jilin Province, China (No. 20170520065JH), and it is sponsored by the Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia via the Deanship for Scientific Research funding granted to the CIIS Research Group project number 2016/01/6441.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and TechnologyChangchun University of Science and TechnologyChangchunChina
  2. 2.College of EngineeringPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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