The generalized Laplace partial differential equation, describing gravitational fields, is investigated in de Sitter spacetime from several metric approaches—such as the Riemann, Beltrami, Börner-Dürr, and Prasad metrics—and analytical solutions of the derived Riccati radial differential equations are explicitly obtained. All angular differential equations trivially have solutions given by the spherical harmonics and all radial differential equations can be written as Riccati ordinary differential equations, which analytical solutions involve hypergeometric and Bessel functions. In particular, the radial differential equations predict the behavior of the gravitational field in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes, and can shed new light on the investigations of quasinormal modes of perturbations of electromagnetic and gravitational fields in black hole neighborhood. The discussion concerning the geometry of de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes is not complete without mentioning how the wave equation behaves on such a background. It will prove convenient to begin with a discussion of the Laplace equation on hyperbolic space, partly since this is of interest in itself and also because the wave equation can be investigated by means of an analytic continuation from the hyperbolic space. We also solve the Laplace equation associated to the Prasad metric. After introducing the so called internal and external spaces—corresponding to the symmetry groups SO(3,2) and SO(4,1) respectively—we show that both radial differential equations can be led to Riccati ordinary differential equations, which solutions are given in terms of associated Legendre functions. For the Prasad metric with the radius of the universe independent of the parametrization, the internal and external metrics are shown to be of AdS-Schwarzschild-like type, and also the radial field equations arising are shown to be equivalent to Riccati equations whose solutions can be written in terms of generalized Laguerre polynomials and hypergeometric confluent functions.
de Sitter spacetime Anti-de Sitter spacetime Riccati differential equations
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