International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 2137–2142 | Cite as

Universality of Operator Ordering in Kinetic Energy Operator for Particles Moving on two Dimensional Surfaces



When the motion of a particle is constrained on the two-dimensional surface, excess terms exist in usual kinetic energy 1/(2m)∑ p i 2 with hermitian form of Cartesian momentum p i (i = 1,2,3), and the operator ordering should be taken into account in the kinetic energy which turns out to be 1/(2m)∑ (1/f i )p i f i p i where the functions f i are dummy factors in classical mechanics and nontrivial in quantum mechanics. The existence of non-trivial f i shows the universality of this constraint induced operator ordering in quantum kinetic energy operator for the constraint systems.


quantum mechanics canonical quantization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School for Theoretical Physics and Department of Applied PhysicsHunan UniversityChangshaChina

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