International Journal of Speech Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 443–448 | Cite as

Audio dual watermarking scheme for copyright protection and content authentication

  • Jinquan Zhang


We propose a new multipurpose audio watermarking scheme in which two watermarks are used. For intellectual property protection, audio clip is divided into frames and robust watermark is embedded. At the same time, the feature of each frame is extracted, and it is quantized as semi-fragile watermark. Then, the frame is cut into sections and the semi-fragile watermark bits are embedded into these sections. For content authentication, the semi-fragile watermark extracted from each frame is compared with the watermark generated from the same frame to judge whether the watermarked audio is tampered, and locate the tampered position. Experimental results show that our scheme is inaudibility. The two watermark schemes are all robust to common signal processing operations such as additive noise, resampling, re-quantization and low-pass filtering, and the semi-fragile watermark scheme can achieve tampered detection and location.


Multipurpose audio watermarking Robust watermark Copyright protection Semi-fragile watermark Content authentication 



This work is supported by the Scientific Research Foundation of CUIT under Grant No. KYTZ201420.


  1. Chen, B., & Wornell, G. W. (2001). Quantization index modulation: A class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 47(4), 1423–1443.MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen, N., & Zhu, J. (2008a). Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm. Journal of Zhejiang University -Science A., 9(4), 517–523.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, N., & Zhu, J. (2008b). Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A., 9(4), 517–523.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Gulbis, M., Muller, E., & Steinebach, M. (2008). Content-based authentication watermarking with improved audio content feature extraction. IEEE IIHMSP, pp 620–623.Google Scholar
  5. Lei, B., & Soon, I. Y. A. (2012). Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm with synchronization and encryption. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science C, 13(1), 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lei, B., Soon, I. Y., & Li, Z. (2011). Blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on SVD–DCT. Signal Processing, 91(8), 1973–1984.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Lei, M., Yang, Y., Luo, S., et al. (2010). Semi-fragile audio watermarking algorithm in dwt domain. China Communications, 7(4), 71–75.Google Scholar
  8. Liao, W., Zhang, Y., Li, D., & Zhang, M. (2009). Audio fragile-robust dual watermarking scheme based on digital wavelet transform[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University, 43(4), 721–726.Google Scholar
  9. Ma, Y., & Han, J. (2006). Audio watermarking in DCT: Embedding strategy and algorithm. Acta Electronica Sinica, 34(7), 1260–1264.Google Scholar
  10. Wang, H., & Fan, M. (2010). Centroid-based semi-fragile audio watermarking in hybrid domain. Science in China Series E-Information Sciences, 53(3), 619–633.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Wang, X., Niu, P., & Yang, H. (2009). A robust digital audio watermarking based on statistics characteristics. Pattern Recognition, 42(11), 3057–3064.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Wang, R., & Xu, D. (2006). Multiple audio watermarks based on lifting wavelet transform[j]. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology, 28(10), 1820–1826.Google Scholar
  13. Wang, X., & Zhao, H. (2006). A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on dwt and DCT. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 54(12), 4835–4840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wu, S., Huang, J., Huang, D., et al. (2005). Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 51(1), 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhang, J., & Wang, H. (2013). Analysis on law of distortion of audio signal for embedding watermark in DCT and DWT. Acta Electronica Sinica, 41(6), 1193–1197.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Information Security EngineeringChengdu University of Information TechnologyChengduChina

Personalised recommendations