A CFD Study of [C2mim][CH3SO3]/Al2O3 Ionanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Grooved Tubes


The present article deals with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of flow and heat transfer of a [C2mim][CH3SO3]/Al2O3 ionanofluid in one conventional tube and two different grooved tubes. The flow is considered to be single-phase and laminar (500 < Re < 2000), and the range of nanoparticle concentration is between 0.05 and 2 %. For properties of the ionanofluid, experimental data available in the literature have been used. The results of relative heat transfer coefficient, pumping power, and field synergy are presented for the three different tubes at various Reynolds numbers and ionanofluid concentrations. It is found that the effect of grooves is more pronounced at low concentrations. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient and pumping power rise by increasing the concentration. Adding the nanoparticles has a greater impact on the heat transfer at lower Reynolds numbers. The pumping power is intensified by the Re increment. More uniform temperature and velocity distributions are achieved because of the more severe flow mixing induced by the grooves. Both the greatest heat transfer coefficient and the highest pumping power occur for the tube having the spirally corrugated grooves. The results show that the heat transfer varies by changing the geometry. At a volume concentration of 0.05 % and Re = 500, the heat transfer coefficient increases by 15.54 % in the tube with the spirally corrugated grooves compared to the conventional tube.

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C :

Heat capacity (J·K−1)

C p :

Specific heat (J·kg−1·K−1)

D :

Hydraulic diameter (m)


Field synergy number

h :

Convective heat transfer coefficient (W·m−2·K−1)

k :

Thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1)

L :

Channel length (m)


Nusselt number


Prandtl number

q :

Wall heat flux (W·m−2)

R :

Non-dimensional tube radius


Reynolds number

T :

Temperature (K)

U :

Dimensionless tangential velocity

W :

Pumping power (W)

x, y, z :

Cartesian coordinates

\(\varTheta\) :

Dimensionless temperature

\(\theta\) :

Cylindrical coordinate

\(\mu\) :

Dynamic viscosity (kg·m−1·s−1)

\(\rho\) :

Density (kg·m−3)

\(\upsilon^\cdot\) :

Volume flow rate

bf :

Base fluid

b :


nf :


w :


W :



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The first author acknowledges Postdoctoral Fellowship from KMUTT. The third author acknowledges the support provided by the “Research Chair Grant” National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), and King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi through the “KMUTT 55th Anniversary Commemorative Fund”.

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Correspondence to Mehdi Bahiraei or Amin Jodat.

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This article is part of the Special Issue on Nanoparticle-enhanced Ionic Liquids.

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Mesgarpour, M., Bahiraei, M., Wongwises, S. et al. A CFD Study of [C2mim][CH3SO3]/Al2O3 Ionanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Grooved Tubes. Int J Thermophys 42, 32 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-020-02783-9

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  • Grooved tube
  • Heat transfer enhancement
  • Ionanofluid
  • Numerical solution
  • Pumping power
  • Variable properties