Effects of Sample Handling and Transportation on the Moisture Content of Biomass Samples
- 61 Downloads
Using biomass in energy production has a significant role in the progress toward carbon neutrality in Finland. In the biomass combustion process, moisture content is an important factor. To enhance efforts for well-quantified uncertainty estimations in reference moisture measurements for biomass, errors related to handling and transporting samples were studied in this work. At the Centre for metrology of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, experiments and simulations were carried out on effects of water mass gain and loss when forest biomass samples are transported to a laboratory and prepared for moisture analysis. Results suggest that opening the sample bag may change bulk moisture content considerably and homogenization of the sample with varying moisture contents inside sample bags typically takes weeks. Results with varying thermal conditions show that the moisture content changes in the tested samples were insignificant. Monitoring the masses of samples and sample containers separately is recommended when aiming at high accuracy in the analysis of hygroscopic samples.
KeywordsBiomass Moisture content Sample handling Transportation
The research leading to these results was carried out within EMRP METefnet—the Metrology for Moisture in Materials project. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. We would like to acknowledge Petri Österberg for providing biomass samples.
- 1.Eurachem, EUROLAB, CITAC and Nordtest and the RSC Analytical Methods Committee, Measurement uncertainty arising from sampling—a guide to methods and approaches. Eurachem/Citac Guide, First edition (2007). https://www.eurachem.org/images/stories/Guides/pdf/UfS_2007.pdf
- 2.ISO 2859, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes. ISO (1999). https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:2859:-1:ed-2:v1:en
- 3.EN 15778:2011, Solid biofuels. Sampling. BSI (2011)Google Scholar
- 4.EN 14780:2011, Solid biofuels. Sample preparation. BSI (2011)Google Scholar
- 5.S. Bell, R. Aro, F. Arpino, S. Aytekin, G. Cortellessa, M. Dell’Isola, Z. Ferenčíková, V. Fernicola, R. Gavioso, E. Georgin, M. Heinonen, D. Hudoklin, L. Jalukse, N. Karaböce, I. Leito, A. Mäkynen, P. Miao, J. Nielsen, I. Nicolescu, M. Rudolfová, M. Ojanen-Saloranta, P. Österberg, P. Østergaard, M. Rujan, M. Sega, R. Strnad, T. Vachova, METefnet: developments in metrology for moisture in materials, in 17 International Congress of Metrology (2015)Google Scholar
- 6.M. Shirangi, B. Michel, Mechanism of moisture diffusion, hygroscopic swelling and adhesion degradation in epoxy molding compounds, in Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices (2012)Google Scholar
- 8.B. Time, Hygroscopic Moisture transport in wood. Doctoral thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Building and Construction Engineering (1998)Google Scholar
- 11.R. Popper, P. Niemz, C. Stephane, Adsorption and desorption measurements on selected exotic wood species. Analysis with the Hailwood–Horrobin model to describe the sorption hysteresis. Wood Res. 54, 43–56 (2009)Google Scholar
- 12.M. Ojanen-Saloranta, H. Sairanen, J. Salminen, H. Kajastie, M. Heinonen, Moisture measurement setup for wood based materials and biomasses, in 17 International Congress of Metrology, vol. 20, p. 5Google Scholar
- 13.K. Hansen, Sorption isotherms, Technical report, Building material laboratory, The Technical University of Denmark (1986)Google Scholar
- 14.L. Bratasz, B. Rashwal, A. Kozlowsja, R. Kozlowski, Sorption of Moisture and Dimensional Change of Wood Species Used in Historic Objects (Firenze University Press, Florence, 2010)Google Scholar