Evaluation of Different Techniques of Active Thermography for Quantification of Artificial Defects in Fiber-Reinforced Composites Using Thermal and Phase Contrast Data Analysis

  • Christiane Maierhofer
  • Mathias Röllig
  • Michael Gower
  • Maria Lodeiro
  • Graham Baker
  • Christian Monte
  • Albert Adibekyan
  • Berndt Gutschwager
  • Lenka Knazowicka
  • Ales Blahut
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. ICPPP-19: Selected Papers of the 19th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena


For assuring the safety and reliability of components and constructions in energy applications made of fiber-reinforced polymers (e.g., blades of wind turbines and tidal power plants, engine chassis, flexible oil and gas pipelines) innovative non-destructive testing methods are required. Within the European project VITCEA complementary methods (shearography, microwave, ultrasonics and thermography) have been further developed and validated. Together with partners from the industry, test specimens have been constructed and selected on-site containing different artificial and natural defect artefacts. As base materials, carbon and glass fibers in different orientations and layering embedded in different matrix materials (epoxy, polyamide) have been considered. In this contribution, the validation of flash and lock-in thermography to these testing problems is presented. Data analysis is based on thermal contrasts and phase evaluation techniques. Experimental data are compared to analytical and numerical models. Among others, the influence of two different types of artificial defects (flat bottom holes and delaminations) with varying diameters and depths and of two different materials (CFRP and GFRP) with unidirectional and quasi-isotropic fiber alignment is discussed.


Active thermography CFRP Delaminations Flash excitation Flat bottom holes GFRP Lock-in excitation 

Mathematics Subject Classification

10.105 10.200 



The EMRP project has been jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union under the project no. ENG57 VITCEA Validated Inspection Techniques for Composites in Energy Applications.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christiane Maierhofer
    • 1
  • Mathias Röllig
    • 1
  • Michael Gower
    • 2
  • Maria Lodeiro
    • 2
  • Graham Baker
    • 2
  • Christian Monte
    • 3
  • Albert Adibekyan
    • 3
  • Berndt Gutschwager
    • 3
  • Lenka Knazowicka
    • 4
  • Ales Blahut
    • 4
  1. 1.Division 8.7 Thermographic MethodsBundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Materials DivisionNational Physical Laboratory (NPL)TeddingtonUK
  3. 3.Division 7.3 Detector Radiometry and Radiation ThermometryPhysikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)BerlinGermany
  4. 4.Thermal Units Department – FMCzech Metrological Institute (CMI)Prague 10Czech Republic

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