Advertisement

Stability Evaluation and Calibration of Type C Thermocouples at the Pt–C Eutectic Fixed Point

  • Jianping SunEmail author
  • Xiaofeng Lu
  • Meng Ye
  • Wei Dong
  • Yalu Niu
TEMPMEKO 2016
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. TEMPMEKO 2016: Selected Papers of the 13th International Symposium on Temperature, Humidity, Moisture and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science

Abstract

Tungsten–rhenium thermocouples (type C thermocouples) are used to measure temperatures higher than 1500 \({^{\circ }}\)C under protective, inert, or vacuum conditions in a wide range of industries, such as metallurgy, power generation, and aerospace. Generally, the measurement uncertainty of a new tungsten–rhenium thermocouple is about 1 % (20 \({^{\circ }}\)C at 2000 \({^{\circ }}\)C), and a significant drift is always observed above 1200 \({^{\circ }}\)C. Recently, the National Institute of Metrology, China, has spent great efforts to calibrate tungsten–rhenium thermocouples with high-temperature fixed points of up to 2000 \({^{\circ }}\)C. In the present work, three tungsten–rhenium thermocouples made by two manufacturers were calibrated at the Pt–C eutectic fixed point (1738 \({^{\circ }}\)C) and their stability was investigated. A linear fitting and extrapolation method was developed to determine the melting and freezing temperatures of the Pt–C eutectic fixed point for avoiding the effect of thermal resistance caused by the sheath and protection tube. The results show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 0.9 \({^{\circ }}\)C from the melting curve of the Pt–C fixed point and better than 1.2 \({^{\circ }}\)C from the freezing curve of the Pt–C fixed point, and a good agreement was obtained for the calibration with the melting and freezing temperature plateau through the linear fitting and extrapolation method. The calibration uncertainty of the thermocouples at the Pt–C eutectic fixed point was 3.1 \({^{\circ }}\)C (k \(=\) 2).

Keywords

Calibration Pt–C eutectic fixed point Stability Tungsten–rhenium thermocouple 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576181).

References

  1. 1.
    J.V. Pearce, C.J. Elliott, G. Machin, O. Ongrai, in Proceedings of Ninth International Temperature Symposium (Los Angeles), Temperature: Its Measurement and Control, in Science and Industry, vol. 8, ed. by D.C. Ripple, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1552, (AIP, Melville, 2013), pp. 595–600Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Morice, F. Edler, J. Pearce, G. Machin, J. Fischer, J.R. Filtz, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 231 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Yamada, H. Sakate, F. Sakuma, A. Ono, Metrologia 36, 207 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Edler, R. Morice, J. Pearce, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 199 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Edler, A.C. Baratto, Metrologia 42, 201 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.G. Kim, I. Yang, S.Y. Kwon, K.S. Gam, Metrologia 43, 67 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.T. Yokoyama, SICE JCMSI 3, 81 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.L. Rempe, D.L. Knudson, J.E. Daw, S.C. Wilkins, Type C thermocouple performance at 1500\(^\circ \)C. Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 9 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Morice, J.O. Favreau, T. Deuze, J.R. Fultz, in Proceedings of SICE 2005 (Okayama, 2005), pp. 678–682Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Machin, G. Beynon, F. Edler, S. Fourrez, J. Hartmann, D. Lowe, R. Morice, M. Sadli, M. Villamanan, in Proceedings of Eighth International Temperature Symposium (Chicago), Temperature: Its Measurement and Control, in Science and Industry, vol. 684, ed. by D.C. Ripple, AIP Conference Proceedings 1551 (AIP, Melville, 2003), pp. 285–289Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Machin, W. Dong, M.J. Martín, D. Lowe, Z. Yuan, T. Wang, X. Lu, Int. J. Thermophys. 31, 1466 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.R. Woolliams et al., Thermodynamic temperature assignment to the point of inflection of the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points. Phil. Tans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150044 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Ogura, M. Izuchi, J. Tamba, Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 2420 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of MetrologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Xi’an Polytechnic UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.Taiyuan University of TechnologyTaiyuanChina

Personalised recommendations