Advertisement

International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 35, Issue 6–7, pp 1169–1179 | Cite as

A Method to Improve the Temperature Distribution of Holder Around the Fixed-Point Cell Position

  • S. D. Lim
  • A. M. Karmalawi
  • S. G. R. Salim
  • M. A. Soliman
  • B. H. Kim
  • D. H. Lee
  • Y. S. Yoo
Article

Abstract

The temperature profile along the furnaces used in heating high-temperature fixed points has a crucial impact on the quality and duration of melting plateaux, accordingly the accuracy of thermodynamic temperature determination of such fixed points. This paper describes a simple, yet efficient, approach for improving the temperature uniformity along a cell holder in high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) furnaces that use pyrolytic graphite rings as heating elements. The method has been applied on the KRISS’ HTBB furnace. In this work, an ideal solution for arranging the heating elements inside the furnace is presented by which the temperature gradient across the cell holder can be kept as low as possible. Numerical calculations, based on a finite element method, have been carried out to find the best possible arrangement of the rings. This has been followed by measuring the temperature gradient along an empty cell holder to validate our calculations. A temperature gradient of 100 mK has been achieved at \(1500\,^{\circ }\mathrm{C}\) over a length of 50 mm within a cell holder of 10 cm in length. It has also been shown that for a 20 cm long holder surrounded by rings with an arbitrary resistance profile, the temperature uniformity can be improved by adding a few “hot” rings around the cell holder.

Keywords

Finite element method High temperatures Radiation thermometry Temperature uniformity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank B. Khlevnoy for fruitful discussion on the furnace and the resistance measurement. This work was supported by the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science under the project “Establishment of National Physical Measurement Standards and Improvements of Calibration/Measurement Capability,” Grant 13011001.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 3 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Yamada, H. Sakate, F. Sakuma, A. Ono, in Proceedings of TEMPMEKO ‘99, 7th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, ed. by J.F. Dubbeldam, M.J. de Groot (Edauw Johannissen bv, Delft, 1999), pp. 535–540Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Yamada, H. Sakate, F. Sakuma, A. Ono, Metrologia 36, 207 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Saunders, P. Bloembergen, D.R. White, in Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 2004, 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, ed. by D. Zvizdić, L.G. Bermanec, T. Veliki, T. Stašić (FSB/LPM, Zagreb, Croatia, 2004), pp. 1149–1154Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Yamada, N. Sasajima, H. Gomi, T. Sugai, in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, vol. 7, part 2, ed. by D.C. Ripple (AIP, New York, 2003), pp. 985–990Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Sasajima, M. Sakharov, B. Khlevnoy, Y. Yamada, M. Samoylov, S. Ogarev, P. Bloembergen, V. Sapritsky, in Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 2004, 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, ed. by D. Zvizdić, L.G. Bermanec, T. Veliki, T. Stašić (FSB/LPM, Zagreb, Croatia, 2004), pp. 1107–1115Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Machin, P. Bloembergen, J. Hartmann, M. Sadli, Y. Yamada, Int. J. Thermophys. 28, 1976 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Khlevnoy, M. Sakharov, S. Ogarev, V. Sapritsky, Y. Yamada, K. Anhalt, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 271 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Sadli, K. Anhalt, F. Bourson, S. Schiller, J. Hartmann, Int. J. Thermophys. 30, 69 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.G.R. Salim, E.R. Woolliams, M. Dury, D.H. Lowe, J.V. Pearce, G. Machin, N.P. Fox, T. Sun, K.T.V. Grattan, Metrologia 46, 33 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization (Wiley, New York, 1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Lim
    • 1
  • A. M. Karmalawi
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. G. R. Salim
    • 2
  • M. A. Soliman
    • 3
  • B. H. Kim
    • 1
  • D. H. Lee
    • 1
  • Y. S. Yoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Physical MetrologyKorea Research Institute of Standards and ScienceDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Photometry and Radiometry DivisionNational Institute for Standards (NIS)GizaEgypt
  3. 3.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations