International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 35, Issue 3–4, pp 516–525 | Cite as

Influence of the Opening of a Blackbody Cavity Measured at the Ag and Cu ITS-90 Fixed Points

  • F. Bourson
  • M. Sadli
  • B. Rougié
  • S. Briaudeau
  • O. Kozlova


The International Temperature Scale of 1990 blackbody fixed points are commonly composed of a graphite crucible containing a pure metal enclosing a radiating blackbody cavity. The shape of the cavity is determined to behave as much as possible as a perfect blackbody; however, the opening from which the radiance is measured induces radiative losses. The measured temperature is therefore underestimated by a few tens of millikelvins at \(1000\,^\circ \)C, compared to that of a perfect blackbody. The difference is due, on the one hand, to the drop of emissivity caused by the opening, and on the other hand, to the temperature drop between the solid/liquid interface and the inner wall of the cavity, observed by the radiation thermometer. The temperature drop is generally estimated by modeling the emissivity and the temperature difference across the cavity wall. This approach is relevant as long as the temperature distribution along the cavity and the graphite properties are known, but in many cases, the lack of data does not allow precise determination of the corrections. The corrections for the temperature drop and emissivity drop, which both depend on the cavity opening, can be determined experimentally with a low uncertainty by measuring the temperature of a fixed point for different cavity openings. To be significant, the measurement requires a source stable within a few millikelvins. In this study, this constraint has been solved by changing the cavity opening during the phase transition of the fixed point, with a rotating wheel supporting apertures of different dimensions. Measurements have been performed at the Ag and Cu fixed points during the freezing plateaus. Experimental results are presented and compared to those obtained by modeling.


Emissivity Fixed points ITS-90 Temperature drop 


  1. 1.
    H. Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 3 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Fischer, M. Battuello, M. Sadli, M. Ballico, S.N. Park, P. Saunders, Y. Zundong, B. Carol Johnson, E. van der Ham, W. Li, F. Sakuma, G. Machin, N. Fox, S. Ugur, M. Matveyev, CCT Working document CCT/03-03, “CCT-WG5 on Radiation Thermometry, Uncertainty Budgets for Realisation of Scales by Radiation Thermometry” (BIPM, Sèvres Cedex, 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Bloembergen, L.M. Hanssen, S.N. Mekhontsev, P. Castro, Y. Yamada, Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 2623 (2011)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Jimeno-Largo, Y. Yamada, P. Bloembergen, M.A. Villamanan, G. Machin, in Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 2004, 9th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, ed. by D. Zvizdić, L.G. Bermanec, T. Veliki, T. Stašić (FSB/LPM, Zagreb, 2004), pp. 335–340Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Bloembergen, B.B. Khlevnoy, P. Jimeno Largo, Y. Yamada, Int. J. Thermophys. 29, 370 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Bourson, M. Sadli, B. Rougié, S. Briaudeau, Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1062 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Sadli, O. Pehlivan, F. Bourson, A. Diril, K. Ozcan, Int. J. Thermophys. 30, 36 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Bourson, S. Briaudeau, B. Rougié, M. Sadli, “Developments Around the Co-C Eutectic Point at LNE-INM/Cnam,” presented at Tempbeijing, Beijing, 2008Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Prokhorov, Metrologia 35, 465 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.S. Touloukian, D.P. DeWitt, Thermophysical Properties of Matter, vol. 7, Thermal Radiative Properties: Metallic Elements and Alloys (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Prokhorov, N.I. Prokhorova, Appl. Opt. 51, 8003 (2012)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Castro, P. Bloembergen, Y. Yamada, M.A. Villamanan, G. Machin, Acta Metrol. Sin. 29, 253 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Castro, G. Machin, M.A. Villamañan, D. Lowe, Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1773 (2011)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Bourson
    • 1
  • M. Sadli
    • 1
  • B. Rougié
    • 1
  • S. Briaudeau
    • 1
  • O. Kozlova
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie (LNE-Cnam)La plaine Saint-DenisFrance

Personalised recommendations